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Jamaica C. Olazo https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

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1 Jamaica C. Olazo https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Jamaica C. Olazo

2 TAXONOMY comes from the Greek word “taxis=arrangements” and “nomos=science” Science of arrangements means 'a set of classification principles', or 'structure', and Domain simply means 'category'. Jamaica C. Olazo ||

3 Who is BENJAMIN BLOOM? was a Jewish-American educational psychologist.
(Feb – Sep. 1999) BENJAMIN SAMUEL BLOOM was a Jewish-American educational psychologist. Contributions: Classification of Educational Objectives Theory of Mastery-Learning Jamaica C. Olazo ||

4 PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN COGNITIVE DOMAIN AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
Development of critical thinking skills Attitude and emotions domain PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN COGNITIVE DOMAIN AFFECTIVE DOMAIN Physical tasks such as the manipulating of objects Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Reflex Movements Basic Fundamental Movements Perceptual Abilities Physical Abilities Skilled Movements Non-Discursive Movements Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization

5 THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING
Mental Skills (KNOWLEDGE) Cognitive Domain (Knowing/Head) Manual or physical skills (SKILLS) Psychomotor Domain (Doing/Hands) Growth in feelings or emotional areas (ATTITUDE) Affective Domain (Feeling/Heart) Jamaica C. Olazo ||

6 Lower-order Thinking Skills to Higher-order Thinking Skills
Evolved function, High complexity Basic function, Low complexity Jamaica C. Olazo ||

7 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain
Lower-order Thinking Skills Higher-order The Cognitive Domain 1956 Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge

8 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

9 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

10 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain
Lower-order Thinking Skills Higher-order The Cognitive Domain 1956 Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge

11 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain
Lower-order Thinking Skills Higher-order The Cognitive Domain 2001(Revised) Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

12 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

13 ORIGINAL TAXONOMY (1956) ---> REVISED TAXONOMY (2001)
High Order Thinking Skills Low Order Thinking Skills Knowledge Comprehension Analysis Application Synthesis Evaluation Remember (I know) Understand (I comprehend) Apply (I can use it) Analyze (I can be logical) Evaluate (I can judge) Create ( I can plan) Jamaica C. Olazo ||

14 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
REMEMBERING REMEMBERING - Recall previous learned information. Recalling relevant knowledge from long term memory. Rote learning or memorization. Jamaica C. Olazo ||

15 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
UNDERSTANDING UNDERSTANDING - Comprehending the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. - Construct meaning and explain. Jamaica C. Olazo ||

16 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
APPLYING APPLYING - Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of abstraction. - applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations. - abstract ideas into practical situations Jamaica C. Olazo ||

17 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
ANALYZING ANALYZING - Breaking the concept into parts and understand how each part is related to one another. - Illustrate relationships to one another. Jamaica C. Olazo ||

18 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
EVALUATING EVALUATING - Making judgments based on a set of guidelines and the value of ideas or materials. Judge, criticize and assess information using what you know to make decisions and support your views. Jamaica C. Olazo ||

19 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
CREATING CREATING - Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Putting information together in an innovative way. Jamaica C. Olazo ||

20 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

21 Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER
I know APPROPRIATE VERBS Choose, describe, define, identify, label, list, locate, match, memorize, name, omit, recite, recognize, select, state, underline Jamaica C. Olazo ||

22 Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER
I know PRODUCTS Chart, model, worksheet, draw a map, picture, demonstrate, graphs Jamaica C. Olazo ||

23 Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER
I know INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Highlighting Rehearsal Memorizing Mnemonics MODEL QUESTIONS Who? Where? Which One? What? How? What is the best one? Why? How much? When? What does it mean?

24 Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND
I comprehend APPROPRIATE VERBS Classify, defend, communicate, demonstrate, distinguish, explain, express extend, give example, illustrate, indicate, interrelate, report, interpret, infer, judge, match, paraphrase, represent, restate, rewrite, select, interpret Jamaica C. Olazo ||

25 Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND
I comprehend PRODUCTS Chart, model, making a film strip, worksheet, draw a map, picture, demonstrate, timeline, diorama, game, report, diagram Jamaica C. Olazo ||

26 Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND
I comprehend INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Key examples Emphasize connections Elaborate concepts Summarize MODEL QUESTIONS State in your own words. Which are facts? What does this mean? Is this the same as. . .? Give an example. Select the best definition. State in one word Explain what is happening.

27 Cognitive Domain: APPLY
I can use it APPROPRIATE VERBS Apply, choose, practice, solve, illustrate, conduct, classify, employ, dramatize, explain, generalize, judge, organize, paint, prepare, produce, select, show, sketch, solve, use, construct, investigate, restructure, manipulate Jamaica C. Olazo ||

28 Cognitive Domain: APPLY
I can use it PRODUCTS Survey, diary, scrapbook, photograph, cartoon, learning center, illustration, construction, sculpture Jamaica C. Olazo ||

29 Cognitive Domain: APPLY
I can use it INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Modeling Cognitive apprenticeships “Mindful” practice – NOT just a “routine” practice Part and whole sequencing Authentic situations “Coached” practice Case studies Simulations Algorithms MODEL QUESTIONS Predict what would happen if… Choose the best statements that apply… Judge the effects… What would result… Tell what would happen… Tell how, when, where, why Tell how much change there would be… Identify the results of…

30 Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE
I can be logical APPROPRIATE VERBS Analyze, categorize, classify, compare, differentiate, question, distinguish, identify, Infer, point out, select, subdivide, survey, contrast, categorize, debate, examine, deduce Jamaica C. Olazo ||

31 Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE
I can be logical PRODUCTS Graph, survey, family tree, timeline, questionnaire, commercial, diagram, chart, report, fact file

32 Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE
I can be logical INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Models of thinking Challenging assumptions Retrospective analysis Reflection through journaling Debates Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision-making situations MODEL QUESTIONS What is the function of . . .? What's fact? Opinion? What assumptions. . .? What statement is relevant? What motive is there? Related to, extraneous to, not applicable. What conclusions? What does the author believe? What does the author assume? Make a distinction.

33 Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE
I can judge APPROPRIATE VERBS Appraise, judge, criticize, defend, estimate, compare, measure, verify, justify, select, decide, choose, recommend, assess, critique, revise, validate, standardize, argue, rate, measure Jamaica C. Olazo ||

34 Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE
I can judge PRODUCTS Self evaluation, survey, editorial, experiment, panel evaluation, recommendation, conclusion, court trial, essay, letter

35 Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE
I can judge INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Challenging assumptions Journaling Debates Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision-making situations MODEL QUESTIONS What fallacies, consistencies, inconsistencies appear? Which is more important, moral, better, logical, valid, appropriate? Find the errors.

36 Cognitive Domain: CREATE
I can plan APPROPRIATE VERBS Choose, combine, compose, construct, create, design, manage, develop, do, improve, formulate, hypothesize, invent, make up, originate, organize, plan, imagine, produce, role play, tell Jamaica C. Olazo ||

37 Cognitive Domain: CREATE
I can plan PRODUCTS Story, poem, play, radio show, puppet show, news article, invention, dance, mural, comic strip, recipe, pantomime, travelogue Jamaica C. Olazo ||

38 Cognitive Domain: CREATE
I can plan INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES Modeling Challenging assumptions Reflection through journaling Debates Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Design Decision-making situations MODEL QUESTIONS How would you test…? Propose an alternative. Solve the following. How else would you...? State a rule.

39 HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER-ORDER QUESTIONS?
Avoid literal-level questions in favor of those requiring higher-order thinking. Use questions requiring higher-order thinking. Higher-order questions are important for modeling different ways students can: - Interpret - Apply - Evaluate - Reflect on what they are learning

40 HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER-ORDER QUESTIONS?
3. Classify questions according to the kinds of thinking required for students to respond. Use of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Thinking Questions classified as knowledge or comprehension should be avoided Teachers should make sure their questions can be classified as APPLICATION, ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS and/or EVALUATION. Jamaica C. Olazo ||

41 HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER-ORDER QUESTIONS?
4. Use verbs associated with higher-order thinking tasks. - Verbs representing cognitive tasks in Bloom’s Taxonomy 5. Consider the learning products associated with higher-order thinking tasks. - Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Jamaica C. Olazo ||

42 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

43 EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES
1. Pose the question first before asking a student to respond. 2. Allow plenty of “think time” by waiting at least 7-10 seconds before expecting the student to respond. -help students adjust to an extended wait time Jamaica C. Olazo ||

44 EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES
3. Give all students the opportunity to respond rather than relying on volunteers. a. Create a system to help you keep track of who you call on b. Allow your student to “pass” when he’s not ready to respond c. Give him another opportunity later Jamaica C. Olazo ||

45 EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES
4. Hold students accountable by expecting, requiring, and facilitating their participation and contributions. Never answer your own questions. Do NOT accept “I don’t know” for an answer. Offer hints or suggestions to guide students. Offer two or more options and let the student choose one Jamaica C. Olazo ||

46 EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES
5. Establish a safe atmosphere for risk taking by guiding students. Always “dignify” incorrect responses by saying something positive about students. Build confidence and trust when students make mistakes. Admit your own mistakes and “think aloud” examples of a reflection. Jamaica C. Olazo ||


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