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Published byCandice Gardner Modified over 4 years ago

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Unit 1 Chapter 2

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Common SI Units

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SI System is set-up so it is easy to move from one unit to another.

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Units that arise from other SI units are called derived units.

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Volume Volume is the amount of space occupied by an object. The derived SI unit is cubic meters, m 3 The cubic centimeter, cm 3, is often used The liter, L, is a non-SI unit 1 L = 1000 cm 3 1 mL = 1 cm 3

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Volume

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Conversion Factors A ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to another.

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Conversion Factors

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Precision and Accuracy Accuracy refers to the agreement of a particular value with the true value. Precision refers to the degree of agreement among several elements of the same quantity.

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The Difference between Precision and Accuracy

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Precision and Accuracy

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures Nonzero integers always count as significant figures. 3456 4 sig figs Significant Figures Consist of all digits that are known with certainty plus one final digit which is uncertain or estimated.

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Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Zeros Leading zeros do not count as significant figures. 0.0486 3 sig figs.

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Captive zeros always count as significant figures. 16.07 4 sig figs Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Zeros

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Trailing zeros are significant only if the number contains a decimal point. 9.300 4 sig figs Rules for Counting Significant Figures - Zeros

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Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations Multiplication and Division: # sig figs in the result has the same number of significant figures as the number with the fewest significant figures. 6.38 2.0 = 12.76 Rounds to 13 (2 sig figs)

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Rules for Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations Addition and Subtraction: the result has the same number of decimal places as the least precise measurement. 6.8 + 15.6896 = 22.4896 Rounds to 22.5 (3 sig figs)

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is calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100. Percent Error

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Direct Proportions Two quantities are in direct proportion if dividing one by the other gives a constant value. Indirect Proportions Two quantities are inversely proportional if their product is constant.

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