Presentation on theme: "The Classical Model of International Trade"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Classical Model of International Trade Chapter 3The Classical Model of International Trade
2 Topics to be CoveredAbsolute Advantage as a Basis for Trade: Adam Smith’s ModelComparative Advantage as a Basis for Trade: David Ricardo’s ModelThe General Equilibrium Solution of the Classical ModelThe Gains from International TradeTrade and WagesAn Evaluation of the Classical Model
3 Development of Classical Theory of International Trade MercantilismAdditional assumptionsAdam Smith’s Absolute Advantage ModelDavid Ricardo’s Comparative Advantage Model
4 MercantilismA system of government institutions and policies designed to restrict international tradeThe source of a country’s wealth is gold or money.Two means of increasing a country’s wealth are colonialism and international trade.A country must export more and import less.
5 Adam SmithArgued that mercantilism lowered a country’s standard of living.Advocated free international trade.Emphasized advantages of specialization and international division of labor whereby nations specialize in the production of only a few goods.
6 Additional Assumptions Assumption 8—Resources cannot move between countries.Assumption 9—There are no trade barriers.Assumption 10—Exports must pay for imports, i.e., trade must be balanced.
7 Assumptions of the Classical Model Assumption 11—Labor is the only relevant resource.Labor Theory of Value states that the pre-trade price of a good is determined by the amount of labor it took to produce it.Assumption 12—Constant returns to scale between labor and output prevails.Constant returns implies a fixed ratio between the labor used and the output level produced.
8 Absolute AdvantageAbsolute advantage is the ability of a country to produce a good using fewer productive inputs than is possible anywhere else in the world.Refer to Table 3.1Since country A’s workers can produce S in less time than B’s workers, then A has an absolute advantage in production of S.
9 TABLE 3.1 Absolute Advantage as a Basis for Trade1
10 Adam Smith’s Principle Adam Smith’s principle—countries should specialize in the production of goods in which they have an absolute advantage.
11 World Gains from Trade Refer to Table 3.2 By following Smith’s principle of absolute advantage, total world output will rise even though there are no new resources.
12 TABLE 3.2 Per Unit Gains from Specialization When Country A Moves to Specialize in Soybeans (S), and Country B in Textiles (T)
13 What Causes Each Country to Follow Its Absolute Advantage? Market forces combined with free tradeGiven that the labor cost equals the wage rate (W) times the amount of labor input: (refer to Table 3.1)
15 Summary of Smith’s Principle For various reasons such as different technologies and climate, countries will produce different goods.World output will increase if countries specialize in their absolute advantage products.This situation is the natural outcome of market forces combined with free trade. A good is cheapest in the country that has absolute advantage in its production.
16 What If One Country Has Absolute Advantage in Both Goods? David Ricardo’s Law of Comparative Advantage—countries should specialize where they have their greatest absolute advantage (if they have absolute advantage in both goods) or in their least absolute disadvantage (if they have absolute advantage in neither good).
17 TABLE 3.3 Comparative Advantage as a Basis for Trade1
18 Example of Comparative Advantage Refer to Table 3.3Country A has absolute advantage in both goods S and T.A is 4x more efficient than B in production of good S (compare 3 hours with 12 hours).A is only (4/3)x more efficient than B in production of good T.Thus, A has comparative advantage in S.With trade, A will completely specialize in S.Do likewise for country B!
19 Gains from Trade based on Comparative Advantage TABLE 3.4 Per Unit Gains from Specialization According to Comparative Advantage as Country A Produces More S, and Country B Produces More T
20 General Equilibrium Solution of the Classical Model Assume labor endowments for each country:A has 12,000 labor hoursB has 9,600 labor hoursStraight-line Production Possibilities Frontier (PPF)Slope of PPF = pre-trade relative price (PS /PT )Refer to Figure 3.1Autarky or pre-trade equilibrium (consumption and production)Tangency point of PPF and Community Indifference Curve (CIC)Refer to Figure 3.2
21 FIGURE 3.1 Production Possibility Frontiers for Country A and Country B
22 FIGURE 3.2 Pretrade Equilibriums for Country A and Country B
23 International Terms of Trade Terms of Trade (TOT)—the relative price at which trade occurs between countries.The TOT will lie between the autarky prices of the two countries; in our example,½ (A’s price) < TOT < 3/2 (B’s price)
24 Post-trade Equilibrium The country with a lower autarky price of a good has comparative advantage in that good.With constant opportunity cost (straight-line PPF), the country will completely specialize in its comparative advantage product once trade begins.With trade, the country will now consume on the TOT line which represents its Consumption Possibility Frontier. Refer to Figure 3.3.
25 FIGURE 3.3 Posttrade Equilibriums for Country A and Country B
26 Consumption Possibility Frontier Refers to the various combinations of goods that a country can obtain by taking advantage of international trade.
27 Trade TriangleTrade Triangle—a geometric device that shows the amounts a country is willing to trade at a particular world price.The trade triangle shows the desired exports and imports of a country given the terms of trade.In international trade equilibrium, the countries’ trade triangles are congruent.See Figure 3.3
28 Walras LawWalras Law—states that if there are n markets in the world and any n-1 of these markets are in equilibrium, then so too will be the nth market.
29 How Can Trading Equilibrium Be Attained? By reciprocal demandReciprocal demand—the process of interaction of international demand and supply necessary to produce an equilibrium world price.
30 Summary of Ricardo’s Model It is not necessary for a country to possess absolute advantage in order to participate in trade. What is required is comparative advantage in production.A country will specialize in and export that good in which its has comparative advantage, i.e., has a lower pre-trade relative price than in the other country.The terms of trade or world price will settle between the autarky prices of the two countries and is determined by reciprocal demand.
31 Gains from Trade (for country A) Refer to Figure 3.4The effect of international trade for country A is to move from autarky equilibrium point K to specialize in the production of good S at point J.With trade, country A will now consume the bundle of goods denoted by point I, showing that A’s standard of living has risen.
33 Gains from Trade (cont.) Production gain – international trade causes A’s production to be focused on industries where A’s labor is relatively more efficient.Consumption gain – A’s consumers are able to buy goods more cheaply.See Global Insights 3.1
34 Terms of Trade and Gains from Trade The closer the terms of trade are to one country’s pre-trade price ratio, the greater the gain for the other country.Importance of being unimportant—when small countries trade with big countries, the small countries are likely to enjoy most of the mutual gains from trade.
35 Relationship Between Trade and Wages Given the following pre-trade relationships:
36 Trade and Wages (cont.)Following the line of comparative advantage and given an exchange rate E which translates B’s currency units into A’s:Substituting the information from (3.1) into the above inequalities:
37 Trade and Wages (cont.)Solving the system of inequalities (3.3) simultaneously, we get:or, after combining terms:The center term is called the relative wage ratio, or A’s wage rate divided by B’s wage (expressed in terms of A’s currency)
38 Trade and Wages (cont.)According to Equation (3.5), in order for trade to occur based on comparative advantage, A’s workers must earn more than B’s workers.Why? Because of differences in labor productivities. A’s workers are more productive than B’s workers.What happens if wages get out of line with productivity levels?
39 Two Valuable LessonsFor trade to occur between countries with different labor productivities, wages must be higher in one country than in the other.A country can lose its comparative advantage if wages get out of line with productivity.
40 Evaluation of the Classical Model The model does not explain why differences in productivity levels between countries exist.It makes extreme and unrealistic predictions such as countries will completely specialize in the production of exportables only.It maintains that the gains from trade are greater between countries of dissimilar production technologies (despite the fact that most trade occurs between DCs with similar technology and income levels).
41 Evaluation of the Classical Model (cont.) The classical model is a useful tool because:It provides a motive for trade between developed and developing countries.It explains why high-wage countries may still benefit from trade even when faced with low-wage competing countries.