Presentation on theme: "Lecture 14 & Lecture 15 Passive Voice 1.Active sentence and passive sentence As has been pointed out, a sentence/clause whose predicator (predicate verb)"— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 14 & Lecture 15 Passive Voice 1.Active sentence and passive sentence As has been pointed out, a sentence/clause whose predicator (predicate verb) is active is called an “ active sentence ”, and a sentence/clause whose predicator is passive is called a “ passive sentence ”.
The subject in the active sentence is the agent or doer of an action, and in the passive the recipient of the action.
1)Rules change into the passive Most of the SVO / SVoO / SVOC patterns can be made passive.
2) Voice constraints Not all the active sentences can be made passive. Some transitive or stative verbs do not occur in the passive: This plane holds about 150 people. These students lacked experience.
Transitive verbs with reflexive or reciprocal objects do not passivize: He hurt himself when he fell from the ladder. We should help each other.
Some “ verb + noun ” combination, which have the force of an intransitive verb, can never take the passive: The medicine soon take effect. The plant will soon take root.
2. Passive voice of phrasal verbs 1) Passive voice of basic phrasal verbs 2) Passive voice of “ verb + noun + preposition ”
3. Passive voice of non-finite verbs 1) Passive infinitive 2) Passive – ing participle 3) Contrast between passive infinitive and passive – ing participle
5. Passive construction and passive meanings 1) Contrast between English and Chinese passives 2) Active constructions expressing passive meanings 3) Passive constructions or “ linking verb + complement ” constructions
4. Uses of passive sentences 1) Cases where the passive is used 2) Two related types of passive sentences