Presentation on theme: "More break down = stronger acid"— Presentation transcript:
1 More break down = stronger acid Strengths of Acids Arrhenius & Bronsted-Lowry definition: gives H+, hydronium ions in solutionStrong acids break down 100% in solutionHCl hydrochloric acidHNO3 nitric acidHBr hydrobromic acidWeak acids do NOT break down completelyH2SMore break down = stronger acidHClH+Cl-H+H+S-2H+Cl-Cl-H2SCl-H2SH+
2 Strong vs Weak Strong will light a bulb brightly! Weak will make the bulb light dimly.
3 Strong Bases Arrhenius definition = donates OH- Bronsted-Lowry definition = accepts H+ Strength is determined the same way as acids More break down = stronger baseStrong bases break down 100% in solutionKOHBa(OH)2CsOHNaOHWeak bases do not break down completelyCa(OH)2LiOHRbOH
4 pH Scale pH = power of hydrogen pH = -log [H+] Battery Acid & HFpH ScaleStomach acid, HCLLemon juice, vinegarpH = power of hydrogenpH = -log [H+]Each time you change a number on the scale you change by a factor of 10pH of 3 is 10 times less acidic as pH of 2pH of 1 is 100 times more acidic as pH 3orange juice,Tomato juice, acid rainBlack coffeeUrine, salivaPURE waterSalt waterBaking sodaGreat Salt LakeAmmoniaSoapy WaterBleachLiquid Drain Cleaner
5 Neutralization Acid + Base Salt + H2O HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O A salt is a metal and non-metal (not just NaCl)HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2OHCl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + H2O
6 TitrationsTechnique used by chemists to determine an unknown molarity of a substanceWe can use an indicator (changes color) to tell us when we are neutral (moles of acid = moles of base)link
7 Titration Calculations Moles of Acid = Moles of BaseM1V1=M2V2
8 Titration Problems acid = base M1V1= M2V2 1. What is the molarity of a CsOH solution if 30.0mL of the solution is neutralized by 26.4 mL of a M HBr solution?
9 Titration Problems acid = base M1V1= M2V2 2. What is the molarity of a nitric acid if mL M KOH solution is needed to neutralize 20.0mL of HNO3?
10 Titration Problems acid = base M1V1= M2V2 3. What is the concentration of a household ammonia cleaning solution if 49.9 mL 0.59 M HCl is required to neutralize mL solution?
11 Titration Problems acid = base M1V1= M2V2 4. What is the molarity of an NaOH solution if 50 mL of the solution is neutralized by 37 mL of 0.5 M HCl?