Chapter 13—Lung Volumes and Respiratory Disorders Lung Volumes and Measures What happens when homeostasis is disrupted ? How much air can you inhale or.

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Chapter 13—Lung Volumes and Respiratory Disorders Lung Volumes and Measures What happens when homeostasis is disrupted ? How much air can you inhale or exhale?

Lung Volume How much air can make it to the alveoli depends on a couple of things: SizeAgeShapePhysical Condition Also, if you are fighting sickness (Immune system) breathing and rate could be altered

TV and DS Tidal Volume (TV)  the amount of air moved into/out of the lung with each breathe TV Amount = approx 350 ml Dead Space Volume  Air that stays in the respiratory tract with each breath & never reaches alveoli DS Amount = approx 150 ml

IRV and ERV Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): the amount of air that can be forcibly taken in IRV Amount = between 2100 ml – 3200 ml Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled ERV Amount = about 1200 ml

RV and Breathing Out Residual Volume  air left in lung after a forceful exhalation RV Amount = about 1200 ml *Depends on the action of the Diaphragm and the Abdominal Muscles Remember  Breathing out is initiated by the relaxation of the diaphragm

Respiratory Math Formula Vital= TidalInspiratory Reserve Expiratory Reserve CapacityVolume + Volume + Volume Vital Capacity (VC)  the total amount of exchangeable air in the lung VC Amount = approx. 4800 ml [VC = TV + IRV + ERV]

Pressure Differences There is an inverse relationship with oxygen and pressure due to gravity: ---if you increase elevation you will decrease pressure ---if you decrease elevation you will increase pressure **Gravity is our friend

More about pressure… ---At higher elevations, there is a lower oxygen content so your body produces more erythrocytes due to the change in conditions ---When you return to a lower elevation, your body is loaded with more erythrocytes and has a higher capacity to hold oxygen ???Training Effect???

Influencing Factors Physical Factors: Talking / Coughing / Sneezing / Exercising Volition (Conscious Control): Swimming / Singing / Swallowing Food Emotional Factors: Scared / Crying & Sad / Laughing Chemical Factors: pH, CO 2 and O 2 levels in the blood

Breathing Disorders / Birth Defects COPD Lung Cancers Cystic Fibrosis Cleft Palate Asthma

1.) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) – Emphysema  loss of lung elasticity and recoil, over-inflation – Chronic Bronchitis  clogged passages with mucous—leads to infection / pneumonia **difficulty breathing, coughing, with a history of smoking

2.) Lung Cancer  1/3 of all cancer deaths in the US are a result of lung cancer **Cilia and mucus stop their protective functions 3 most common forms of lung cancer: 1.) Squamaous Cell Carcinoma 2.) Adenocarcinoma 3.) Small Cell Carcinoma **Best treatment: removal of the diseased lung

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Small Cell Carcinoma

3.) Cystic Fibrosis  1 out of 2000 white children are born with this **oversecretion of mucus that clogs alveoli and passageways Remember  If alveoli are clogged, there is no way for the air to come in contact with the respiratory capillaires

Cystic Fibrosis

4.) Cleft Palate  defect of the hard anterior palate where is fails to close of in development

Cleft Palate

5.) Asthma  Respiratory passageway swells & Bronchioles constrict  gasp and wheeze for air  Medications and Rescue Inhalers are saving lives daily

Why does asthma happen?

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