Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13—Lung Volumes and Respiratory Disorders Lung Volumes and Measures What happens when homeostasis is disrupted ? How much air can you inhale or."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13—Lung Volumes and Respiratory Disorders Lung Volumes and Measures What happens when homeostasis is disrupted ? How much air can you inhale or exhale?
Lung Volume How much air can make it to the alveoli depends on a couple of things: SizeAgeShapePhysical Condition Also, if you are fighting sickness (Immune system) breathing and rate could be altered
TV and DS Tidal Volume (TV) the amount of air moved into/out of the lung with each breathe TV Amount = approx 350 ml Dead Space Volume Air that stays in the respiratory tract with each breath & never reaches alveoli DS Amount = approx 150 ml
IRV and ERV Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): the amount of air that can be forcibly taken in IRV Amount = between 2100 ml – 3200 ml Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled ERV Amount = about 1200 ml
RV and Breathing Out Residual Volume air left in lung after a forceful exhalation RV Amount = about 1200 ml *Depends on the action of the Diaphragm and the Abdominal Muscles Remember Breathing out is initiated by the relaxation of the diaphragm
Respiratory Math Formula Vital= TidalInspiratory Reserve Expiratory Reserve CapacityVolume + Volume + Volume Vital Capacity (VC) the total amount of exchangeable air in the lung VC Amount = approx. 4800 ml [VC = TV + IRV + ERV]
Pressure Differences There is an inverse relationship with oxygen and pressure due to gravity: ---if you increase elevation you will decrease pressure ---if you decrease elevation you will increase pressure **Gravity is our friend
More about pressure… ---At higher elevations, there is a lower oxygen content so your body produces more erythrocytes due to the change in conditions ---When you return to a lower elevation, your body is loaded with more erythrocytes and has a higher capacity to hold oxygen ???Training Effect???
1.) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) – Emphysema loss of lung elasticity and recoil, over-inflation – Chronic Bronchitis clogged passages with mucous—leads to infection / pneumonia **difficulty breathing, coughing, with a history of smoking
2.) Lung Cancer 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the US are a result of lung cancer **Cilia and mucus stop their protective functions 3 most common forms of lung cancer: 1.) Squamaous Cell Carcinoma 2.) Adenocarcinoma 3.) Small Cell Carcinoma **Best treatment: removal of the diseased lung
3.) Cystic Fibrosis 1 out of 2000 white children are born with this **oversecretion of mucus that clogs alveoli and passageways Remember If alveoli are clogged, there is no way for the air to come in contact with the respiratory capillaires