Presentation on theme: "FIRE SAFETY FOR FIRE WARDENS Richard Norris, Fire Safety Adviser"— Presentation transcript:
1 FIRE SAFETY FOR FIRE WARDENS Richard Norris, Fire Safety Adviser IntroductionWhy you are hereExpected duration of event
2 Introductions and background General Fire Safety SESSION OBJECTIVESIntroductions and backgroundGeneral Fire SafetyFire alarm investigationFire Warden roleHome Fire SafetyWarn of use of Bradford video
3 Introductions and Background DomesticsRefreshmentsToiletsFire Alarm / Assembly areaFormat of the sessionRest break – optional?Why the need for trained fire wardens?Domestics if event at OPHSession to be two-way discussion not just a presentation.Fire wardens a requirement of RRO and are essential to fire safety management of a building.Lack of knowledgeable FW can lead to disasters becoming tragedies: Bradford fire.
4 QUESTION: Who is responsible for fire safety in your building? EVERYONE IN THE BUILDING!That includesStudents, Contractors, VisitorsRemind attendees they are responsible – it’s not down to someone else!
5 What is a fire?… A fire can be defined as “A chemical reaction called combustion that involves the rapid oxidisation of combustible materials, accompanied by a release of energy in the form of heat and light”…Photo of Chemistry fire 20:56 Saturday.Either an electrical fault or a hot appliance placed in a cupboard.
8 FIRE TRIANGLE Fuel Oxygen Ignition Sources/Heat Flammable gases Flammable liquids Flammable solidsOxygenAir we breath (21% O2)Additional sources from oxidising substances & cylindersAll fires comprise these three elements.All extinguishers work by removing or reducing one or more of the elements.What element would a water PFE be used on? Ignition Source/HeatWhere would a CO2 extinguisher be used (indoors or out) – Indoors. It works by reducing the O2 in the atmosphere.Would it be safe to be in a room if a CO2 was let off? Generally yes as the O2 needs to be reduced to around 17% before people are affected. O2 levels of around 14% present a real life risk.Mention suppression systems.Ignition Sources/HeatHot Surfaces Electrical equipment Static electricity Smoking/naked flames
9 How does fire spread?Conduction – occurs when heat is directly applied to a material, which then transfers the heat to other locations e.g. metal girdersConvection – is the process where heat is transferred by hot air and smoke travelling through buildings uncheckedRadiation – is the heat we feel given off by a fireAlso consider:Fire creepBurning embersFlashover
10 Fires don’t make appointments Fires can occur at home and at work BURNING ISSUESFires don’t make appointmentsFires can occur at home and at workAll big fires start as little firesPeople die in fires every day – most are killed by smokeKnowing what to do saves livesFire safety is common sense, just like general safety – these are common sense statements.(Called common sense but it’s not very common)What causes the most number of fires in the workplace? 3 = electrical faults, 2 = smoking (pre-smoking ban!), 1 = Arson (up to 50% of fires in the workplace deliberately set)Potential risk in Precinct buildings as it is very difficult to keep wheelie bins etc well away from buildings.Top causes of fire at home: 4 = smoking, 3 = electrical, 2 = heating / fires, 1 = cooking.Few fires start as large fires (except explosions?) but small fires can grow really quickly.Flashover
11 University of Bristol fires: 30 since January3 in Hall study bedrooms / 4 in Hall kitchens / Chemistry 07 / Engineering 08 / Students’ Union September 09Most caused by faults with electrical equipmentThis does not include “cooking fires” where people have left cooking unattended and it has started to smoulder!100s false fire alarms EVERY YEAR!
14 Student building shut after fire (15. 9. 09) A university students' union building has been closed after a large fire broke out. The blaze broke out at the canoe club inside the building on Queen's Road in Bristol. A fire service spokesman said the swimming pool was also affected. The cause of the fire is under investigation. (PRESS)A fire in a storage area adjacent to the University of Bristol's Students' Union Building has caused some smoke damage to the premises, and consequently the building will be closed for at least 48 hours."
15 WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF YOU DISCOVERED A FIRE? What are the options?Call Brigade? Alarms are not connected to the fire brigadeFight Fire?Raise alarm? Shout fire?Evacuate?Turn of power/gas?
17 Raise the alarmExamples of a current Fire Action Notice adjacent the red fire alarm break-glass (Manual Call Point)Old “orange” signs not complaint and must be replaced – contact H & SO for replacementsMention other colours of break glasses – green for door over-ride, cream, blue (do different things)
18 Escape / Evacuate the building Pass through fire doors and follow the escape signs through the place of relative safety (escape route) to the place of ultimate safety – through the final exit to the fresh air outside.Escape routes should contain signs, lighting, fire points. They are a place of relative safety en-route to the place of ultimate safety – outside at the assembly area.
19 Go to the assembly area A typical assembly point / assembly area sign. Stay there until you are told it is OK to go back to work, or the building cannot be re-entered – go home or elsewhere.Assembly points should be signed (example of sign on slide) but as most of our assembly points are in public highway we cannot install signs.Signs should be provided by Gardens and Grounds or the Senior Surveyor from Building Services.
20 First priority is to raise the alarm, but how? ON DISCOVERY OF A FIREFirst priority is to raise the alarm, but how?Do you call Security or the fire brigade – dial , 88777, or 999 or something else? ( off-precinct?)Fight the fire ONLY if competent to do soLeave the building by your NEAREST means of escapeGo to the assembly areaYou need to know what applies in your buildingPeople attending these events will not be competent in fire fighting with PFE.People do not use their nearest means of escape but prefer to use the main entrance/exit they are familiar with – wardens need to encourage people to use all available escape routes.People do not go to the assembly area but mill around outside, or go to the shops etc. Wardens must encourage people to go to the assembly area.
21 When the fire alarms sound….. Does it mean evacuate or prepare to evacuate?Is it just a test or the real thing?It is essential we all react correctlyExplain the consequences of assuming it is a false alarm. In the Woolworth's Fire in people died, 9 of which ignored the warnings.Management control was also very poor. The fire started at point E 1.7)Lunchtime on OAP concession day – paid for their meals – didn’t see smoke or flame, fire grew rapidly.REMEMBER - always ask the question “was that a false alarm?” from the fresh air!!!!!!
23 USE OF EXTINGUISHERS IS VOLUNTARY SO DO IT ONLY… After raising the alarmIf you have a clear means of escapeTo aid your escape (unless you are competent?)In the very early stages of a small fireIf you are aware of different types of fire extinguisherEEC Directive in 1997What were te colours we were used to:Red = waterBlue = PowderBlack = CO2Cream = foamGreen = Halon/BCF.Unless we have been there when a fire starts (caused it?) the first most of us will know of a fire is when we hear the alarm. By this stage it is generally too large to deal with safely with a PFE. (e.g. the Arts water heater fire or the study bedroom fire)
24 Fire Extinguisher Types Water Red: paper, wood, etc. – organic solids.Not electrical equipment, liquids or gasesFoam Cream: solids & liquids Not electrical equipment or gasesPowder Blue: solids, liquids, gases & electrical equipmentCO2 Black: liquids, electrical equipment, safe on most small firesFire blanket Good extinguisher for general use – MUST cover the whole fireStandard provision in UoB = water and CO2.Blankets in some labs and in kitchens where cooking takes place.Some powders and foams where RA identified the need.Provided to comply with the Law and to aid escape if needed.
25 Ensure that electrical equipment is checked Prevention of fireEnsure that electrical equipment is checkedStore combustible waste correctlyStore flammable liquids correctlySources of ignition to be controlledExplain PAT testing arrangements. Highlight the huge increase in risk within the home (“electrical” fires cause most deaths in the home from fire)Refer to means of escape when explaining where items should not be stored.(Biggest cause of fires in the home is kitchen fires but they don’t cause the most deaths)Anyone can spot a frayed lead or scorched socket or other visibly defect. Report it and get it dealt with.Photo is not of a University office but the equal has been seen in one or two buildings here.
26 Allow a safe exit from a building Means of EscapeAllow a safe exit from a buildingMust be kept clear and available at all timesHave fire doors, installed to help prevent the spread of smoke, fumes and fireCan fire doors ever be wedged or held open?Explain compartmentation, passive and active fire protection and the prevention of the spread of smoke, fumes and flames to allow a safe means of escape HIGHLIGHT THAT THE GREATEST RISK IS FROM SMOKE AND FUMES. (80% of people that die in fires die from smoke inhalation)Explain areas of relative safety (refuge areas) and why less able bodied people should leave slightly behind everyone else, with a buddy for their own safety! Line Managers are responsible for conducting a risk assessmentExplain why MOE should be kept clear of non-combustible items not just combustibles.Note the sign on the staircase wallPreventing build-up of combustible materials in a single-stair building is essential as the staircase and hallway is generally the only means of escape for people on upper floors.Talk about emergency lighting and the requirements of BS 5266Explain the make up of a fire door using an example within the building if possible. Point out that it is the weakest link in the compartmentation along with lack of fire stopping.Highlight the dangers of wedging doors open and the legal implicationsTalk about fire risk assessment
27 PRINCIPAL FACTORS AFFECTING MEANS OF ESCAPE Building construction:Primary constructionSecondary constructionCompartmentationFire pointsStairwells / enclosuresPassive fire safety measuresActive fire safety measuresOccupancy: numbers, activities, capabilitiesDesign features (intended use, numbers of people: exits, travel distances, time of evacuation)Management controlConstruction (Primary = Class A, B or C), Secondary. Compartmentation.Management control is key. Poor management control leads to fires: Woolworths, Bradford, Newquay)
28 Fire Alarm Investigation – Why? To comply with the University’s Fire Safety Policy - approved in July aimed at reducing the number of false alarm attendances the University generatesTo comply with the Avon Fire and Rescue Service Procedure “Call Challenge” introduced in October 2007.
29 Fire Alarm Investigation – How? Ideally the investigation team is three people: one at the alarm panel, two to investigate cause of activation. Circumstances must dictate.“Searchers” use correct techniques.Maintain radio or mobile phone contact with the person at the alarm panel.Always be prepared to abandon the search.
30 Fire Alarm Investigation - Failsafe Always rely on your instinct – if it doesn’t feel right, don’t go any further, abandon the search and get the Brigade out.If you see smoke or flame or if you smell smoke, abandon the search and get the Brigade out.“Double Knock” – smoke is spreading and more detectors are activatingManual call point – assume a real fire, do not investigate, call the BrigadeHeat detector – less sensitive than a smoke detector – assume a real fire and call the BrigadeInvestigation time (two-stage alarm system only)
31 Investigation Techniques Use hands, eyes, nose and ears!Scan the area you are approaching but don’t forget to regularly check to the sides and behindNote locations of manual call points and fire extinguishersTouch walls/doors etc with the back of the handFeel doors for heat before opening, starting at the topHow to open the door safely …If heat felt or smoke seen/smelt DON’T open the door – ABANDON THE SEARCH AND CALL THE BRIGADELook for signs of detector activation: (rapid flash or permanently on LED)
32 What is a Fire Warden ? THE FIRE WARDEN ROLE The primary objective of a fire warden is to check that their designated area has been cleared and report to the person controlling the evacuationThey may be required to assist people from the building that cannot escape unaidedThey may be involved with “crowd control” and moving people away from the building towards the assembly area.They may be involved in monitoring final exits to prevent people re-re-entering the building before being authorised to do so.Fire Wardens may also be involved in the preparation of fire evacuation plans, in risk assessments and generally promoting fire safety
33 FIRE WARDEN ROLE – normal day to day activities Monitor access and egress routes including refuges if installedDon’t allow house-keeping to slip (build-up of fire load)Keep an eye on extinguishers, smoke detectors, emergency lights, escape signs and fire doors.Co-ordinate / liaise with other Fire WardensOver a period of time check the fire alarm can be heard in all locations/rooms.
34 FIRE WARDEN DUTIES – when the alarm sounds Put on any issued distinctive clothing (e.g. high viz jacket)Plan your sweep so that you always move towards your floor exitIf possible, turn off equipment and close doors/windows as you passCheck all accessible rooms including toilets, and refuges if installed.Communicate to all the need to evacuate using designated routesPost-evacuation debriefing meetingsWhat if you find someone who refuses to evacuate?What if you are not in your area when the alarm sounds?
35 Fire Warden Duties – when the alarm sounds Health & Safety at Work etc. Act 19747. It shall be the duty of every employee while at work :a) to take reasonable care for the health and safety of himself and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work ; andb) as regards any duty or requirement imposed on his employer or any other person by or under any of the relevant statutory provisions, to co-operate with him so far as is necessary to enable that duty or requirement to be performed or complied with.Fire Warden Duties – when the alarm soundsReport to the incident controller that your floor is clear, or advise of the name and precise location of any person needing assistance.Take the name of any one who refuses to leave and report them to the officer in charge of the evacuation.Assist the incident controller with crowd control, ensuring adequate access for the fire brigadeMonitor final exit doors to prevent unauthorised re-entry into the building?Explain the significance of sec 7 of HASWA with regard to fire drillsREMEMBER IN ALL CIRCUMSTANCESDO NOTPUT YOURSELF AT ANY EXTRA RISK
36 EVACUATION OF DISABLED PERSONS PEEPsRefugesWhen should disabled evacuate?Who provides assistance?What about the “unknown” visitorPeople organising meetings / events
37 Home fire safety …Install smoke alarms GET OUT ! STAY OUT!! … Close downstairs doors at night…Teach the family how to react to fire… Know what to do if a fire starts …GET OUT !STAY OUT!!GET THE FIRE BRIGADE OUT !!!Use real life scenarios to get message across regarding the importance of smoke alarms and explain to people that you loose your sense of smell when you sleepShow ‘Fire Kills’ video - explain what led to tragedy (teach family how to react to fire)Explain what steps must be taken to reduce the risksTalk about risks from candles and how they are increasingly being usedShow ‘Bradford City Football Fire Video’ after this slide. IMPORTANT - remember to position the video before showing
38 BRADFORD CITY FOOTBALL STADIUM FIRE 1985 58 PEOPLE KILLED100S INJUREDRemember to position the video before showing, giving people the chance to choose whether to watch the video or take a break!Mention clock / amount of time for fire to spread right through stand.Ask question – what would have happened if the fire occurred at Hillsborough
39 Following the video discuss how the tragedy could have been avoided by better management control and discuss the root cause of the fireAlso use the diagram to highlight how fire wardens could have been used to dramatically increase peoples survival chances in this fire. (By posting them at the back of the stadium ready to open the gates in the event of fire and to usher people towards the front of the stand and onto the pitch)Remind people that we said at the beginning of the session “All big fires start as little fires” and this was no different. 3 Minutes before the evacuation was initiated the Police were asking for fire extinguishers.Explain how the fire brigade (rightly or wrongly) were held officially 1/3 responsible for the fire for not issuing a prohibition notice. (They instead chose to issue an improvement notice on two occasions).Investigators consider the following points to be contributory factors: Building construction; ventilation for fire growth, reluctance of people to evacuate at first signs of smoke (history of smoke bombs / assumed another); design of escape routes and peoples’ desire to use familiar exit; rapid deterioration of visibility and increase in toxic gases; rapid fire spread beneath the roof and associated high radiant heat temperatures 20+MW; the high level of the gangway/escape route at the rear of the stand subjected escapees to heat and toxic gases.
40 Fire deserves our respect SummaryFire deserves our respectTreat all alarms as real unless told otherwiseOn discovery of a fire - raise alarm - call the Fire Brigade - leave buildingKnow all of your escape routesFire Prevention is better than Fire FightingWe all carry responsibility for fire safety
41 Further Information.uk or for a free home fire safety visit(Home Fire Safety)Health and safety Executive (HSE) website:Health and Safety Office website:
42 OBJECTIVES COVEREDIntroductions and backgroundGeneral Fire SafetyFire alarm investigationFire Warden roleHome Fire Safety
43 THANK YOU! Contact me on: 01179 298784, 07786 397655 or Change this phone number to your ownContact me on: , or