2 India’s GeographyIndus River flows across northwest edge of Indiansubcontinent—large landmass, part of a continent Home of one of ancient world’s great river valleycivilizations Indian subcontinent includes three major geographic zones:-Far north: Himalaya, Hindu Kush mountain systems, separatingIndia from rest of Asia South: Deccan Plateau, high plateau receiving less rain thanother parts of subcontinent Between mountains (Valley), plateau are Northern Plains, where society first developed in India
3 Geography of the Indian subcontinent Three RegionsMonsoonsCultural diversity
4 Water Critical FactorThe people of India’s first civilizations depended upon the monsoons to bring the water that their crops needed.Monsoon WindsDevastating Effects• Summer Monsoons brought rain that flooded rivers; rivers deposited fertile silt in which farmers could grow crops • Winter Monsoons brought cool, dry air to the region. Lack of rain during this period.• Monsoon rains too heavy— crops, homes, lives could be lost • Monsoon rains too late, did not last long enough—people could not grow crops; famine became danger
6 Indus Valley Civilization cont. Farming and tradeMost people were farmersCreated dams and used irrigationTraded with Sumer (Mesopotamia)Used record keeping but we are unable to decipherHarappan Writing
7 Indus Valley Civilization cont. Religious BeliefsPolytheisticMay have worshipped sacred animals
13 Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c.He was following the path of the Buddha.He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.
17 Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture. Gupta ArtGreatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
18 500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified500 healing plants identifiedGupta AchievementsPrinted medicinal guidesKalidasaLiteraturePlastic SurgeryMedicineInoculationsGupta IndiaC-sections performedSolar CalendarAstronomyMathematicsDecimal SystemThe earth is roundPI =Concept of Zero
19 The Decline of the Guptas Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them.After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c.