2 The Preamble The first three words of the Preamble are: We the People . . .6 reason for the establishment of the Constitution are:To form a more perfect UnionEstablish justiceInsure domestic tranquilityProvide for the common defensePromote the General WelfareSecure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and out posterity
3 Article I Deals with the Legislative Branch Congress is made up of the:House of RepresentativeSenateMust be 25 to be elected to the House of Representatives.Must have been a citizen for 7 years if not born in the USTerm of Office for the House of Representatives = 2 years.Vacancy’s filled through a special election
4 Article I (cont.)There are 2 senators elected from each state – (total of 100)Term of office for the Senate = 6 yearsMust be at least 30 years old and/or a US citizen for at least 9 years.The Vice President is responsible for presiding over the Senate.Only allowed to vote when there is a tie.
5 Article I (pg. 3) The Senate tries cases of impeachment Chief Justice of Supreme Court presides over trial2/3 vote needed to convict.Congressmen are immune to arrest while Congress is in session except under the following circumstances:TreasonMajor crimesBreaking the peaceMust meet at least once in every year
6 Article I (slide 4)House of Representatives and Senate can expel a member with a 2/3 voteBills of Revenue must originate from the House of Representatives.A President may refuse to sign a Bill for 10 days (excluding Sunday’s) before it becomes lawIf 2/3 of vote of each house needed to override presidential veto
7 Article I (come on – another one) Powers Granted to CongressRaise and spend RevenueBorrow $ by issuing bondsRegulate commerceEstablish rule for becoming citizenPass bankruptcy lawsIssue currencyPunish counterfeitersEstablish and run the Post OfficePass Copyright and patent lawsEstablish a Federal Court systemProtect American ships form piracyDeclare WarRaise and support an ArmyProvide for and maintain NavyPass rules for military disciplineCreate the National Guard (militia)Govern behavior of the National GuardMake Laws for Washington DC
8 Article I (last slide I promise) Elastic Clause – “To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper “Congress does not have the power of:Extend Slave trade beyond 1808Suspend Habeus Corpus (except in times of war)No Bills of Attainder or ex post factoTax goods on exportsPass laws favoring 1 state over anotherWithdraw $ from Treasury without prior permissionBestowing Titles of NobilityNo State may enter into a treaty or alliance with another country
9 Article II Deals with the Executive Branch PresidentPresidential term of office = 4 yearsElected by the Electoral CollegeMust have been born in the United StatesVice President takes over office of President upon:Death of PresidentResignation of PresidentRemoval of President by impeachmentPresident becoming unable to perform duties of OfficeOath of OfficeExecute the office of the PresidentPreserve, Protect, Defend the Constitution
10 Article II (cont.) Commander in Chief of: ArmyNavyAir ForceMarinesNational Guard (militia)Under Extraordinary circumstances, President may call for a meeting of CongressPresident or VP may be impeached for:TreasonBriberyOther High Crimes or Misdemeanors
11 Article III Deals with the Judicial Branch Chief Justice is the head of the Judicial DepartmentMay serve for life (or until they choose to retire)Their salaries may not be cut while they are in officeOnly trials of impeachment are not tried with a jury.There must be at least 2 witnesses to convict someone of treason
12 Article IVNew states cannot be created within the boundaries of existing states or between 2 adjacent states without the permission of Congress and the state.Congress has powers over new lands or territories.Every state must have a Republican form of government.
13 Article V Article VI Article VII Congress needs 2/3 vote in both houses to propose and Amendment¾ of the states must pass the Amendment for it to become law. (38 states)Article VIAny treaties are also considered to be the law of the land.The Constitution and any treaties always override state lawsNo religious test can be given to qualify someone to hold a public office.Article VII9 of the 13 states needed to ratify the Constitution to make it legal39 of the 55 delegates to the Philadelphia Convention signed the Constitution