Immigrants from Europe Early on in American History, most immigrants came from the British Isles, Scandinavia, and Northern Europe. Starting in the 1870s, the immigrants moving from Europe come first from Southern Europe (Greece and Italy) and then Eastern Europe (Poland, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Czechs, Russia, etc.) Many new immigrants are Jewish. Around 20 million people will immigrate from 1850- 1920
Immigrants from Asia Between 1851-1883, about 200,000 Chinese immigrated from China. Some came for gold in California. Others came to work for the railroads. 200,000 Japanese immigrants will move to the US by 1920. Many Japanese move to Hawaii to work on the sugar and pineapple plantations.
Immigrants from Latin America Between 1880-1920, 260,000 immigrants will enter America from the Caribbean. Most of these people came from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Dominican Rep. Many Mexicans will move here because of the Mexican Revolution.
Ellis Island Island in NY Harbor that was used to do intake on immigrants coming to America. During the peak years of 1905-1907, immigration officials will process 11,000 immigrants a day More than 16 million immigrants will pass through Ellis Island
Immigrants would be “inspected” for disease, literacy, intelligence, checked for criminal background. Given a 6-second medical exam. Sometimes they were quarantined. Sometimes they were sent back home. Ellis Island was in service from 1890-1954.
Angel Island The “Ellis Island” for the West Coast. In San Francisco Bay. Most of the immigrants passing through here were Asian. Between 1910-1940, 175,000 Asians, including 50,000 Chinese immigrants, will arrive at Angel Island for processing.
Melting Pot A new view of assimilation. Immigrants were supposed to come here to the United States and become more like us. Despite this, many immigrants will stick together in neighborhoods: “Little Italy” “Chinatown” However, many immigrants will encourage their children to learn English and become American.
“Melting Pot” or “Tossed Salad”? Melting pot = assimilation of multiple cultures into a new, blended “American” culture Tossed salad = many different cultures thrown together, but little blending – each culture stands out
Anti-Immigrant Sentiment Nativist groups arise—especially against the Catholic peoples and Eastern Europeans. Anti-Catholic leagues formed. Many are upset at the influx of Jewish immigrants. Quotas placed to allow only limited number of “undesirables” into the nation. 1882-Chinese Exclusion Act. No Chinese immigrants allowed for 10 years. Reupped in 1892 and 1902. Repealed in 1943 Gentlemen’s Agreement: Japan would agree to limit emigration from Japan to the US. Started because San Francisco segregated Asians from Americans in schools.
Question Time 1. Why were so many immigrants coming to America? 2. What made these immigrants different from previous immigrants? 3. What was the immigrant experience like in America? 4. Why were some people prejudiced against immigrants?
Urban Life Most immigrants join many Americans in moving to the cities. Biggest cities are New York, Philly, Chicago, St. Louis, Boston, Cleveland, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Buffalo. Many people leaving farms for factories and jobs. Blacks leave the South and begin moving to the cities for better opportunities. Urban crowding will lead to many opportunities and many problems
Urban Problems Overcrowding Tenements and row houses Transportation issues Fire Poor sanitation Disease Crime Water issues Pollution
Reform Movements Jane Addams established Hull House in 1889. Hull House was a settlement house. Settlement houses were built as community centers and were found in many cities. Settlement houses provided assistance for women, children, and immigrants in low income districts. The settlements helped give education to people who needed it. Most of the administrators were middle class, college educated women.
Reform Movements Social Gospel Movement was another urban movement set to improve the lives of many. The movement applied Christian principles to social problems, especially poverty, inequality, liquor, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, poor schools, and the danger of war. They tried to encourage churches to be established in poor neighborhoods and help business leaders help improve the lives of their workers.
How the Other Half Lives Series of photojournalism done by Jacob Riis. Depicts what life is like for the urban poor. Help push for tenement reforms.
Skyscrapers Have to be built to accommodate urban crowding. Steel buildings and Otis elevators. First skyscraper was the Wainwright Building in St. Louis (10 stories). Other cities will soon follow.
Mass Transportation People live on outskirts of city to live, but come in to work. Workers in the city may not live near their jobs in a crowded city. People used mass transit like trolleys and subways to get into the city. Brooklyn Bridge.
Urban Planning Cities build parks like Central Park and Fairmount Park. Make life better for city inhabitants. Spread population out. Protect from events like Chicago Fire or mass epidemics. Set aside districts for business, trade, and residence.
Public Education Between 1865-1895, 31 states pass compulsory education for children 8-14 for 12-16 weeks a year. By 1900, 75% of all American children go to school. Education emphasized reading, writing, and arithmetic. Illiteracy rate drops from 20% in 1870 to 6% in 1920. High schools grow from 800 in 1878 to 5,500 in 1898. High school added more to the curriculum. Most schools were segregated. More White kids attended than Black kids.
Question Time 5. What problems do the cities have? Why? 6. What reform movements do you see in the city? 7. Why are Jane Addams and Jacob Riis so important? 8. Why was public education so important?