Terms Gandhi’s methods of resistance: Satyagraha – “truth force” Gandhi’s promotion of non-violent mass demonstration through which they would make the oppressors realize their own immorality and right the wrongs they had perpetrated. Ahisma – Non-violence in the face of attack. Civil disobedience – as the name states, breaking unjust laws peacefully and accepting the consequences including jail and beatings. Ashram – commune like headquarters. Swadeshi – “Of one’s own country” a Hindi word that served as the slogan in the boycott of foreign goods in India, also part of the protest against Britain’s partition of Bengal in 1905. Dalit – “Of one’s own country,” a Hindi slogan word in the boycott against foreign goods.
People Mohandas K. Gandhi – Both Political and Spiritual leader in India. – Leader of the Indian National Congress in the 1920s. – Lead Indian people in a peaceful revolution against British colonization. – Did not like an untouchable class. – Wanted appropriate technology. – Salt Marches. – Comparable to Mao, but not communist or Chinese or violent. – Muslim critics thought he was too Hindu, left-wing critics thought he was too revisionist. Jawaharlal Nehru – Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964 – Often seen as Gandhi’s second. – Worked towards neutrality toward major powers. – Began industrialization of India, wanted India to industrialize.
People Continued Indira Gandhi – Prime Minister after Nehru’s death in 1964. – Tested India’s first atomic bomb in 1974 – Supported the Bangladesh movement for Independence from East Pakistan. – Fought poverty with socialist policies. – Was expected to be a puppet by those who put her in office. – Some felt her changes undermined democracy; she asked the pres. To declare an emergency that allowed her to regain some political power. – Gandhi then jailed opposition leaders and forcibly sterilized quotas of people, also limited the press and freedom of speech. – She had gone too far however, and was kicked out to avoid a dictatorship. – Voted back into power again in 1980. – Very popular with foreign leaders and played both sides of Cold War. – Led Green Revolution and tried to control population growth.
Events 1885 Indian National Congress established by British. British troops shot at protesters of the Rowlatt Acts, suppressing freedom of press and rights to assembly, killing 379 Indians and wounding 1,100. – Convinces everyone that the British need to go. Indian independence from Britain, 1947. Split of Pakistan and Kashmir from India as well. 1955 Hindu Marriage Act – Gave Hindu women the right of divorce and raised the marriage age to 15. – Was restricted to Hindu women so as not to offend any Muslims or other people. 1966 Hindu Succession Act – Gives daughters equal rights with sons in inheriting their father’s property.
Changes (in lieu of actual events) From a colony of Britain to a One Party Democracy – With Socialist policy. – Hindu Majority with large Muslim minority, causes much tension. – Tensions with Pakistan after receiving independence all at once. From exploited and dependent on Britain to moderately urban and industrialized nation with the means to feed itself (Green Revolution). – A lot of urbanization seen. – Rural areas still in poverty, but the richer parts are competitive with the rest of the world. – Overpopulation also a problem.