6 Quick Test Nominal, Ordinal, Interval or Ratio? Blood lactate concentration (mmol.l-1)Profile of Mood States (scale 1-7)Heart Rate (beats.min-1)Blood GroupBench Press 1RM (kg)Year of Birth (AD)Atmospheric Pressure (mmHg)
7 Système Internationale (SI) Units Seven ‘constant’* base units using the metric systemVariableUnitSymbolAccepted DerivationsDistancemetremha for area; º for angle; #l or L for volumeMass*kilogramkgtTimesecondsmin, h, d (not year)TemperaturekelvinKMolemolemol#l or L for volumeCurrentampereALuminancecandelacdUnits always lower-case#, neither italicised nor pleuralised (i.e. kg not KGS) and with space between value and unit (inc. % but exc. º).
8 Discrete and Continuous Variables Discrete Variables:Continuous Variables:
9 Indicators of Central Tendency ModeMost Frequently Occurring ScoreMedianMiddle ScoreMeanArithmetic Average.
14 Hypothetical Investigation “The effect of 1 week placebo supplementation on press-up performance”8 randomly sampled participantsPerformed as many press-ups as possibleSupplemented with placebo tablets for 1 week
23 Median & Range or IQRThe mean SD or SEM cannot be used for non-normally distributed dataInstead the median is often plotted along with either the range or the IQRRaw Data: 8, 10, 15, 20, 55, 75, 120, 179
31 Selected ReadingHopkins W. G. (2000) A New View of Statistics [Online] Auckland: Internet Society for Sport Science. Available at: [accessed October 3rd 2005]Masson, M. E. J. and G. R. Loftus. Using confidence intervals for graphically based data interpretation. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. 57: , 2003.