# THERMOGASDYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS RUNNING THE NATURAL GAS Institute for Engineering Thermophysics National Academy.

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THERMOGASDYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS RUNNING THE NATURAL GAS Institute for Engineering Thermophysics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Prof. A. Khalatov, Dr. S. Kobzar, Dr. G. Kovalenko, Dr. V. Demchenko The 11 th PHOENICS Users Conference, London, UK, 2006

1.Introduction 2.Boiler «Victor» and Combustion Chamber 3.Results and Discussions: 3.1. Basic design 3.2. H 2 S in the natural gas 4. Conclusions. С О N T E N T S

Computer design is based on the flow, heat and mass transfer modeling using numerical simulation of basic transport equations. Commercial packages «FLUENT», «STAR-CD», «PHOENICS» and others are widely used in various applications. Advantages: - saving of time and money; - wide range of designs and boundary conditions; - easy changes in air and fuel regimes; - easy changes in combustion chamber design; - clear demonstration of results; - finding of information not registered in experiments. 1. Introduction

Examples of Computer Modeling Flow streamlines inside the burner. Aerodynamics of the be- burner combustion chamber.

2. Boiler Victor» and Combustion Chamber Boiler «Victor» Boiler «Victor», 100 kWt power. Combustion chamber : D = 412mm, L = 1140 mm, Burner: Giersсh–RG20 (gas flow rate – 12,6 m 3 /h; air excess – 1,2) Burner Exit of gases

1. Chemical reaction: СН 4 + 1,5·0 2 CO + 2·H 2 0 CO + 0,5·O 2 CO 2 2. Average speed of the methane burning (first reaction; model of the vortex breakdown - EBU): R CH4 = - C EBU ·min { CH 4 ; O 2 /3,0 }· · k, кg/(m 3 с), C EBU =2,0 4. NO x formation : Thermal and Prompt мechanizm. 3. Average speed of СО to СО 2 oxidation (minimal magnitude of a speed according to EBU-model and Arrenius law ) : - R CO = - min {R EBU ; R Ar ); - R Ar = 5,4 10 9 ·exp {- 15000 / T}·[CO]·[O 2 ] 0,25 ·[H 2 0] 0,5, [к·mol / (m 3 ·с)] 3. Results and Discussions Kintetics of natural gas burning:

3.1. Basic design Flow field. Grid : (Х, Y, Z): 90 х 19 х 46; Global convergence parameter – 0,1% Commercial CFD Package PHOENICS v.3.6 was used in all calculations

Temperature field: T avr. = 1060 0 C, T мах = 1493 0 C.

NO x concentration. Prediction: 19,56 мg/м 3, Experiment: 24 мg/m 3.

CO concentration. - Prediction: 2,4 мg/m 3, Experiment: 4 мg/m 3 Methane concentration.

3.2. H 2 S in the natural gas Temperature field: T outlet = 966 0 C, T мах = 1334 0 C - Direct chemical reaction of H 2 S burning : H 2 S + 1,5·O 2 SO 2 + H 2 0 - Average speed of H 2 S burning (EBU - model): R H2S = - C EBU ·min {H 2 S; O 2 / 1,41 }·( · k), [кg/(m 3 с)], C EBU =4,0

Temperature field (basic design ): T outlet = 1060 0 C, T мах = 1493 0 C The primary reason of the temperature in the combustion chamber reduction : decrease in the fuel lowest caloric value. Temperature field: T outlet = 966 0 C, T мах = 1334 0 C

NO x concentration Prediction : 20,83 мg/m 3 СО concentration Prediction : 6 мg/m 3 Temperature decrease in the combustion chamber leads to the increased carbon monoxide (CO) generation.

4. C o n c l u s I o n s 1.The modern computer technologies are widely employed for design and modernization of boilers and combustion chambers. 2.Computer technologies enables to analyzing the number of design variants and flow regimes before the fabrication or modernization; this allows us to take more justified solutions, to save the time and funding. 3.Computer modeling enables detecting some specific features of the combustion chamber flow and temperature fields, which are actually unable to be detected in experiments. 4.The experiment keeps its important meaning; however it should be employed after basic decisions regarding combustion chamber design and flow regimes.

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