Presentation on theme: "Assessing Intelligence. Why was intelligence tests created? Is it better to separate students into ability groups or to have mainstreamed classes? Why?"— Presentation transcript:
Why was intelligence tests created? Is it better to separate students into ability groups or to have mainstreamed classes? Why? Are intelligence tests the main way students are identified for special services in school? How can intelligence tests keep students back? How can they help students succeed?
Origins of Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet Created the First modern intelligence test along with Theodore Simon Did not attempt to examine why children were different Mental Age Based on the premise that all children follow the same course of intellectual development
Lewis Terman Standford-Binet Used a numerical measure of inherited intelligence that extended the upper end of the test’s range
William Stern Intelligence Quotient or IQ A person’s mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 IQ = __Mental Age___ x 100 Chronological Age Mental Age – Refers to the score a student receives on an intelligence test; it compares his score to those of other children of the same age, given the same test.
Who did what? Binet & Simon? Concept of mental age William Stern? IQ Formula Lewis Terman? Used formula with Stanford-Binet Test
So what would be a “normal” score on an intelligence test? 100
What is being tested? Achievement Tests- Reflect what you have learned Aptitude Tests – Intended to predict your ability to be successful
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Does not give an overall intelligence score but consists of 11 subtests broken into verbal and performance areas WISC – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
TEST CONSTRUCTION Standardization Testing in conditions as similar as possible – same directions, and same amount of time Norming Taking the scores from the test and graphing them
Flynn Effect The intelligence test scores from over 20 countries and found that overall intelligence test scores have risen anywhere from 5 to 25 points from the beginning of the 20 th century Regardless of Race, Ethnicity or Cultural Background This has perplexed researchers oCaused many to question if intelligence tests actually measure intelligence. oFlynn believes that intelligence actually measure problem-solving skills
Reliability A test has reliability if it yields dependably consist scores The way to test reliability is to Split-Half scores This is splitting the test in half and see whether odd- questions and the even-questions score agree – if so then the test is reliable
Validity Predictive Validity Success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict Driver’s tests should predict good driving habits Content Validity Occurs when tests measure what they are supposed to measure The AP Psych Exam should contain items about psychology
Stability After the age of 7 intelligence test scores become more stabilized.
Extremes of Intelligence The Low Extreme Those whose intelligence scores fall at 70 or below The High Extreme Those whose intelligence scores fall at 135 or above
Low Intelligence Intellectual Disability – formerly Mental Retardation A child must have both a low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living 1% of the population Males outnumber females by 50%
High Intelligence Genius IQ is generally considered to begin around 140 to 145, representing ~.25% of the population (1 in 400). Here's a rough guide: 115-124 - Above average 125-134 - Gifted 135-144 - Highly gifted 145-154 - Genius 155-164 - Genius 165-179 - High genius 180-200 - Highest genius >200 - "Unmeasurable genius"
Genetic vs Environment Heritability Estimated at 50% of intelligence This means that heredity is credited with 50% of the variation in the intelligence among people being studied Heritability never pertains to n individual, only to why people differ from one another.
Early Environmental Influences Malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation can retard normal brain development There is no environmental recipe to “fast- forwarding” a normal infant into a genius All babies need normal exposure to sights, sounds and speech “Mozart Effect” has been discredited
Gender Differences Spatial Ability – Males Math and Spatial Aptitudes - Equal Average Scores Math Problem Solving – Males Math Computation Females
Eugenics Nazi Germany Genetic Therapy What is the difference?
The intelligence test performance of today’s better-fed, better- educated, and more test-prepared population exceeds that of the 1930s population- by the same margin that the intelligence test score of the average White exceeds that of the average Black.
Race There is no real basis beyond the surface qualities to justify racial categories. Race is not a biological category but in reality is a socially construct to categorized people in easily discernible differences.