Presentation on theme: "The limbic system, or motivational system, includes:"— Presentation transcript:
1 The limbic system, or motivational system, includes: Amygdaloid body- Basal nucleus that acts as an interface between the limbic system, cerebrum, and sensory systems.Plays role in regulation of heart rate, control of “fight/flight” response, and linking emotions with specific memories.Cingulated gyrus- Sits superior to the corpus callosum.NOTE: (pl.: gyri; prominent fold or ridge or neural cortex on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres).Dentate and parahippocampal gyri- Form the posterior and inferior portions of the limbic lobe.Hippocampus- Region, beneath the floor of a lateral ventricle, involved with emotional states and the conversion of short-term to long-term memories.
2 The limbic system, continue: -Fornix: An arching tract that connects the hippocampus with themamillary bodies.- Functions of the limbic system involved emotions andbehavioral drives
6 The cerebral cortex Surface contains gyri and sulci (fissures) Longitudinal fissure separates two cerebral hemispheresCentral sulcus separates frontal and parietal lobesTemporal and occipital lobes also bounded by sulci
7 White matter of the cerebrum Contains:Association fibers- Interconnect areas of neural cortex within a single cerebral hemisphere.Shorter association fibers are called arcuate fibers as they curve in an arc to pass from one gyrus to another.Commissural fibers- Interconnect and permit communication between the cerebral hemispheres.Bands of commissural fibers linking the hemispheres include the corpus collasum and anterior commissure.Projection fibers-Link the cerebral cortex to the diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
9 The basal nucleiBasal Nuclei- Masses of gray matter that lie within each hemisphere deep to the floor of the lateral ventricle.Are embedded in the white matter of the cerebrum.Radiating projection fibers and commissural fibers travel around or between these nuclei.Caudate nucleus- One of the basal nuclei involved with the subconscious control of skeletal muscular activity.Lentiform- Consists of the medial globus pallidus and lateral putamen (Control muscle tone and coordinate learned movement patterns).
10 Motor and sensory areas of the cortex Primary motor cortex of the precentral gyrus directs voluntary movementsPrimary sensory cortex of the postcentral gyrus receives somatic sensory informationTouchPressurePainTasteTemperature
11 Figure 14.17 The Cerebral Hemispheres PLAYFigure 14.17
12 Association areasControl our ability to understand sensory information and coordinate a responseSomatic sensory association area- Monitors activity in the primary sensory cortex.Allows one to recognize a touch as light as a mosquito landing on one’s arm.Visual association area- Monitors pattern of activity in visual cortex and interprets the result.Ex.: interprets c, a, r as c+a+r or car.Somatic motor association area (premotor cortex)- Responsible for coordination of learned movements.
13 general interpretive and speech areas General interpretive areaReceives information from all sensory areasPresent only in left hemisphereSpeech centerRegulates patterns of breathing and vocalization
14 cortex functions and hemispheric differences Prefrontal cortexCoordinates information from secondary and special association areasPerforms abstract intellectual functionsHemispheric differencesLeft hemisphere typically contains general interpretive and speech centers and is responsible for language based skillsRight hemisphere is typically responsible for spatial relationships and analyses