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Solutions, Acids, and Bases

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1 Solutions, Acids, and Bases
Chapter 8

2 8.1 Formation of Solutions
Any State of matter can become part of a solution. For a solution to form, one substance must dissolve in another. Examples: Example: gas dissolves in water, oxygen dissolves in blood, sugar dissolves in tea.

3 Dissolving SOLUTE dissolves into the SOLVENT
Example: Salt is the solute, water is the solvent Water is always a Solvent Substances can dissolve in water in 3 ways: Dissociation Dispersion Ionization

4 Dissolving by dissociation of Ionic Compounds
The solute and solvent particles attract one another. Example: Saltwater: Water (polar molecule) is attracted to the sodium and chlorine ions and pulls the crystal apart. This is a physical change

5 Dissolving by Dispersion of Molecular Compounds
Breaking into small pieces that spread throughout the solvent. Example: Sugar water: Both sugar and water are polar molecules, so they attract one another. Because water molecules are always moving, they collide frequently with the sugar crystals. The surface sugar molecules break free of the crystal and is pulled into solution. This is a physical change

6 Dissolving by ionization of molecular compounds
Neutral molecules gain or lose electrons Example: When HCl gas dissolves in water, the hydrogen proton from the HCl molecule is transferred to a water molecule forming a hydronium ion H3O+, and a chloride ion, Cl - This is a chemical change.

7 Properties of Liquid Solutions
Physical Properties of a solution differ from those of its solute and solvent Conductivity Freezing Point and Boiling Point Heat During the formation of a solution, energy is either released or absorbed.

8 Factors Affecting rates of dissolving
Depends on the frequency and energy of collisions that occur between particles of the reactants. Surface area Increases possible collisions between solute and solvent Stirring Increases likelihood of collisions between solute and solvent Temperature Increases movement of particles and increases the energy of the collisions.

9 Solubility in 100g of Water at 20°C
Maximum amount of a solute that dissolves in a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature. Expressed in grams of solute per 100 grams of solvent at a specified temperature. Solubility in 100g of Water at 20°C Compound Solubility (g) Table Salt (NaCl) 36.0 Baking Soda (NaHCO3) 9.6 Table Sugar (C12H22O11) 203.9

10 Solutions are described as sutured, unsaturated, or supersaturated, depending on the amount of solute in solution. Saturated Solutions – contains as much solute as the solvent can hold at a given temperature. Addition of more solute will not go into solution. Unsaturated Solution – has less than the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved. Addition of more solute will dissolve into solution. Supersaturated Solutions – contains MORE solute than it can normally hold at a given temperature. Very unstable as extra solute can rapidly deposit our of solution.

11 Factors affecting solubility
Solubility varies with the solvent used and the conditions of the solution process. Polarity of the Solvent – like dissolves like Example: oil will not dissolve in water, but will dissolve using nonpolar soap. Temperature – the solubility of solids increases as the solvent temperature increases. Gases usually become less soluble as the temperature of the solvent increases. Example: adding sugar to warm tea instead of cold tea. Carbon dioxide escapes from warm soda faster than cold soda. Pressure - Increasing the pressure on a gas increases its solubility in a liquid. Example: pressurized Carbon dioxide in a sealed bottle of soda is released when the bottle is opened (pchhhhh)

12 Concentration of Solutions
The amount of solute dissolved in a specified amount of solution. Percent by Volume = Volume of solute x 100% Volume of solution Percent by Mass = Mass of solute x 100% Mass of solution

13 8.3 Properties of Acids and Bases
Acid is a compound that produces hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water. Proton Donors Properties: Sour taste, Reactivity with metals , Color Changes in Indicators (litmus paper) Base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. Proton Acceptors Properties: Bitter Taste, Slippery Feel Color Changes in Indicators (litmus paper, phenophthalein)

14 Neutralization and Salts
Neutralization is the reaction between an acid and a base. The negative ions in an acid combine with the positive ions in a base to produce an ionic compound called a salt. (H3O + Cl-) + (Na+ + OH-) → (H2O) + (Na++ Cl-) acid base water salt

15 8.4 Strength of Acids and Bases
pH Scale - describe the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution Acid/Base pH Hydronium (H3O+) Ions Acid 1 High Neutral 7 equal Base 14 Low

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