Presentation on theme: "Commas and Semi-colons Mini-Lesson Notes and Practice."— Presentation transcript:
Commas and Semi-colons Mini-Lesson Notes and Practice
Comma Notes Rule 1 Use commas to set off introductory words, phrases, or clauses. This lets the reader know that the main subject and main verb of the sentence come later, and simply introduces both. Ex. Generally, people are friendly and helpful. Ex. Throughout his early life, he felt a strong connection with his father. Ex. If you discover that you feel nauseated, then you know you’ve eaten something bad. Rule 2 You should always have a comma before FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) that join two independent clauses. *Not doing this causes a comma splice or run-on. Ex. You wore a lovely hat, but you didn’t wear a nice shirt. Ex. My hamster loved to play, so I bought him an adventurous cage. Rule 3 Use a comma after all conjunctive adverbs (words such as however, moreover, and therefore). This applies whether you insert a semi-colon or not. Ex. Basketball is my favorite sport. However, I excel at tennis. Ex. Basketball is my favorite sport; however, I excel at tennis.
Comma Notes Rule 4 Put commas between items three or more items in a list, including one before the last item (before the conjunction – often and). Ex. Many believe you can achieve life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in New York City. Rule 5 If you have two or more adjectives that are not joined by a conjunction (usually and) and both/all adjectives modify the same word, put a comma between them. *If you can put and or but in that spot, use a comma. Ex. He was a bashful, dopey, sleepy dwarf. Ex. The frothy, radiant princess kissed the putrid, vile frog Rule 6 Commas can be used to set off additional info. that appears within a sentence, but is separate from the main subject and verb. These commas tell the reader that the words within the commas are not necessary to understand the rest of the sentence. You should be able to take out that information, and still have a complete and clear sentence. Ex. My chemistry book, which weighs about 100 pounds, has some really great examples. Ex. Bob Mills, a sophomore from Raleigh, was the only North Carolina native at the Japanese food festival in Cary.
Comma Notes Rule 7 Use a comma to set off quoted material. Ex. Miller writes, “The purpose of my book was to simply inspire.” Ex. "The question is," said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many things." Rule 8 Use commas to set off phrases that express contrast. Ex. She answered by arguing the importance of fire, not ice. Ex. It was her money, not her charm or personality, that first attracted him. Rule 9 Use commas to avoid confusion. Ex. Outside, the lawn was cluttered with broken branches. Rule 10 Don’t forget these: between a city and state, a date and year, and a name and title.
Semi-Colons Rule 1 Use a semicolon in place of a period to separate two sentences where the conjunction has been left out. Ex. Call me tomorrow; I will give you my answer then. Ex. I have paid my dues; therefore, I expect all the privileges listed in the contract. Rule 2 It is preferable to use a semicolon before introductory words such as namely, however, therefore, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., or for instance when they introduce a complete sentence. It is also preferable to use a comma after the introductory word. Ex. You will want to bring many backpacking items; for example, sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing will make the trip better. Rule 3 Use the semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas. Ex. This conference has people who have come from Boise, Idaho; Los Angeles, California; and Nashville, Tennessee. Rule 4 Use the semicolon between two sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction when one or more commas appear in the first sentence. Ex. When I finish here, I will be glad to help you; and that is a promise I will keep. Ex. If she can, she will attempt that feat; and if her husband is able, he will be there to see her.