2 Sex Fixed biological category: Chromosomal Anatomical Reproductive Hormonal Other physiological Man and woman/male female Eunuchs :a castrated man. Transgender (transsexual, transvestite) : relating to, or being a person who identifies with or expresses a gender identity that differs from the one which corresponds to the person's sex at birth in various ways (i.e. Surgery, clothing, behavior). (http://www.kaosgldernegi.org/belg e.php?id=sozluk) Hermaphrodites/Intersex: Having both male and female reproductive organs.
3 Sex vs Gender Sex Fixed biological category: Chromosomal Anatomical Reproductive Hormonal Other physiological Gender Socially created differences between man and woman in terms of: behavioral cultural psychological traits Masculinity and feminity
4 A)Biological explanations reproductive and hormonal differences. the objective of carrying our genes to next generations Approaches to Gender Difference-B.N.E.1
5 different roles in procreation and care-giving (man have the capacity to impregnate thousands of women, whereas women have relatively scarce eggs). men and women are seeking for different partners. men are more aggressive, competitive and they are orienting towards assertiveness (so, links with the outside world). women seeks protection and they orient towards more nurturing (expressive role in the nuclear family) Approaches to Gender Difference-B.N.E.2
6 differences in the organization of social relations (man go out and women nurture). Support for marriage and family Approaches to Gender Difference-B.N.E.1
7 A Criticism Essentialist! rigid distinctions between women and men acceptance of the categories of women and men as universal groups sharing a universal biology and personality. ignoring diversity and thus ideological, social, cultural or intellectual constructions of biological factors. human sexuality is rooted in biology and normal sex drive is heterosexuality! Lesbians, gays, bisexuals? Approaches to Gender Difference-Critique of B.N.E.
8 Biological Determinist! biological differences are seen to constitute a practical and natural basis for the sexual division of labor. exclusion of social influences and environment on behaviors! Approaches to Gender Difference-Critique of B.N.E.
9 Approaches to Gender Difference-N.C.S.c.2 2) Nurture, culture and social construction Gender is a learned set of behaviors and through the social process we all learn to be either feminine or masculine. Social roles and social expectations are influential for gender roles. Socialization process and social learning of the sex roles (family, schools, peers an media)
11 Gender leads/ for women: INEQUALITY Inequitable allocation of: Social status Opportunity Resources (econ., soc., pol.) Why does gender difference matter?
12 At the workplace: Glass ceiling (glass ceiling” refers to an invisible barrier that prevents someone from achieving further success. It is most often heard in the context of women who cannot advance to the highest levels of power in the workplace. The glass ceiling is a way of describing whatever keeps women from achieving power and success equal to that of men.) Less paid Sexual or emotional harassment Status inequalities Feminization of poverty At the household Unpaid domestic labor Domestic violence Psychological pressure of morality (descent mother, wife). Sites of Inequality