Presentation on theme: "Aristotle’s Three Ways to Persuade Logos Ethos Pathos."— Presentation transcript:
Aristotle’s Three Ways to Persuade Logos Ethos Pathos
Who is Aristotle? Aristotle (384-322 BCE), a Greek philosopher and scientist, studied at Plato’s Academy from age 18 - 37. Aristotle wrote on a wide range of subjects, from logic, philosophy, and ethics to physics, biology, psychology, politics, and rhetoric.
What is rhetoric? Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. The goal of persuasion is to change others’ point of view or to move others to take action.
What are logos, ethos, and pathos? Logos = Logic, Reasoning Ethos = Ethics, Credibility of author or speaker Pathos = Emotions, Passion
Logos, Ethos, Pathos Using logos, ethos, and pathos will help you to master the art of persuasion, as well as to see the ways others are attempting to manipulate you.
Logos Logos means “word.” The use of logos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason. Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical.
Ethos Ethos means “character.” The use of ethos is an argument based on credibility and/or respect of the person writing or speaking. Using ethos means the writer or speaker appeals to the audience’s sense of ethical behavior. It also involves the writer or speaker’s attempt to present him/herself to the audience as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical.
Pathos Pathos means “suffering” or “experience.” An appeal to pathos is an argument based on emotions. Using pathos means appealing to readers’ emotions and feelings.
Symbols for Logos, Ethos and Pathos Logos = Head Ethos = Hand Pathos = Heart
Logos Example In the following example, note how Ian Ayres uses evidence from experience (her work environment, Delta Airlines, the University of Chicago). This evidence establishes the precedent that Ayres uses to compare to the current situation that she argues should be changed.
Logos Example We don’t have single-sex toilets at home, and we don’t need them at the office. Then there’s also the small question of efficiency. I see my male colleagues waiting in line to use the men’s room, when the women’s toilet is unoccupied. Which is precisely why Delta Airlines doesn’t label those two bathrooms at the back of the plane as being solely for men and women. It just wouldn’t fly.
Logos Example The University of Chicago just got the 10 single-use restrooms on campus designated gender neutral. It’s time Yale followed suit. And this is not just an academic problem. There are tens of thousands of single-use toilets at workplaces and public spaces throughout the nation that are wrong- headedly designated for a single-sex. All these single-use toilets should stop discriminating. They should be open to all on a first-come, first-lock basis. —Ian Ayres, “Looking Out for No. 2”
Ethos Example In the following example, note how Nancy Mairs establishes her credibility and trustworthiness and authority to write about this subject by being honest. Mairs admits she is uncertain about her own motives and shows she understands the discomfort others’ have with this subject.
Ethos Example First, the matter of semantics. I am a cripple. I choose this word to name me. I choose from among several possibilities, the most common of which are “handicapped” and “disabled.” I made the choice a number of years ago, without thinking, unaware of my motives for doing so. Even now, I am not sure what those motives are, but I recognize that they are complex and not entirely flattering.
Ethos Examples People—crippled or not—wince at the word “cripple,” as they do not at “handicapped” or “disabled.” Perhaps I want them to wince. I want them to see me as a tough customer, one to whom the fates/gods/viruses have not been kind, but who can face the brutal truth of her existence squarely. As a cripple, I swagger. —Nancy Mairs, “On Being a Cripple”
Pathos Example In the following example from a speech by Winston Churchill, note the use of anaphora (repetition of a word or group of words at the beginning of items in a series). This repetition emphasizes the point and expresses passion and emotion. Moreover, the repetition affects the audience emotionally.
Pathos Example We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. —Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons, June 4, 1940
Review Logos = logic Logos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason. Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical.
Review Ethos = Ethics / Image Ethos is an argument based on character. The writer or speaker presents him or herself to the reader as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical.
Review Pathos = argument based on feelings Using pathos means appealing to readers’ emotions and feelings.
Ethos is apparent with the sole use of celebrities as models for the ad. It says: "I drink milk and I'm famous; if you want to be like a star, you should drink milk, too." The play on ethos is also apparent in the use of the popular hourglass image. The hourglass is the most popular way to characterize a desirable woman's figure. Adding to this appeal is the slim Meredith Viera dressed in a conservative, but knee-revealing skirt to further convey the message that drinking milk can make you thin, attractive, sexy, and maybe even famous!
Pathos, or pathetic appeal comes into play by the association of drinking milk with watching the waistline. This ad is obviously geared toward women, and many women are trying to, or feel the need to, lose weight. The image of the hourglass comes into play with pathos as well, for many women long to have this kind of figure. The hourglass is the most celebrated image of women in art and movies, and it seems also most desired by men. The mocking of the shape by using the hands to make an imaginary hourglass comes to mind. The ad is presented in a way that celebrates that image and that suggests that drinking milk is the way to get it.
Logos is shown by the use of the American Heart Association's endorsement at the bottom of the page. The text in the upper right hand corner also states that "recent studies suggest that including 24 ounces of low fat or fat free milk a day in a reduced calorie diet may help you burn more fat….." Therefore, it becomes logical to include milk in your diet if you are trying to lose weight. Meredith says that she always makes time for milk, and so should you. Busy moms could have the same benefits that she does, because if a busy mom/celebrity like Meredith Viera can do it, then you can do it, too.
Ethos, pathos, and logos are combined to have an impact on the targeted audience in this ad. By playing on image and fame in using a celebrity, a woman's desire to lose weight and be appealing, having the perfect body, and using scientific research to back up their claims, this ad displays a balanced rhetorical situation.