Presentation on theme: "Publishers, Libraries and the Licensing of eJournals and eBooks Steven Hall, Pratt-SILS Summer School on E-Publishing, UCL, 19 June 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Publishers, Libraries and the Licensing of eJournals and eBooks Steven Hall, Pratt-SILS Summer School on E-Publishing, UCL, 19 June 2008
Agenda Why license? Journal licensing – the Big Deal What does the Big Deal mean for publishers? What does the Big Deal mean for libraries? What are the impacts on the scholarly information market? Future scenarios Book licensing Current state Why books are different to journals, and some books different to others Questions
Why license? Copyright law and community norms Well established in the print environment Fair use and Fair dealing well understood Established practices in the print environment for ILL, copying for course packs, etc Digital copying, storage and transmission much easier, less visible Digital publishing ahead of copyright legislation Licensing long accepted for databases, other electronic resources, software, etc
Why license? Pushing at the boundaries Cornell University E-Reserves http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/policy/Copyright_Guidelines.pdf Subito BL Direct Piracy and fraud SERU Shared Electronic Resource Understanding – NISO initiative http://www.niso.org/workshops/seru
Journal licensing and the Big Deal Background State-wide and consortium licensing in the USA of databases, especially aggregated journal databases Licensing in the UK, Australia etc of full-text databases JISC and the NESLi (National Electronic Site Licence) agreement Current take-up Licensing of the Big Deal is the rule, not the exception Elsevier Big Deal with 90% of ARLs; Wiley 83%; Springer 77% (http://www.uksg.org/sites/uksg.org/files/jill_emery_rick_and erson.pps)http://www.uksg.org/sites/uksg.org/files/jill_emery_rick_and erson.pps Similar levels of penetration throughout the library world Similar licensing to Government, commerce, hospitals, etc
Journal licensing and the Big Deal Some notable exceptions Stanford, Wisconsin-Madison... Several flavours of the Big Deal Wide variety of licensing options available Different deals from different publishers Leasing v. perpetual rights
Why do publishers offer a Big Deal? Why do publishers... Encourage libraries to benefit from lower annual price increases on their journal subscriptions? Tie themselves into multi-year deals which limit their ability to sell new subscriptions and increase prices? License very large packages of journals at huge discounts on their list prices? Increase their sales and marketing costs to promote and sell the Big Deal?
Why do publishers offer a Big Deal? Stability and predictability of income Better renewal rates Income growth through licensing of additional access Packages, collections, tokens, etc Wider reach and readership through additional licensing Greater usage of non-core journals Improved Impact Factor - possibly
Why do publishers offer a Big Deal? Sources of journal income Institutional subscriptions and licensing Personal subscriptions Member subscriptions Advertising, supplements, reprints, etc Secondary rights Backfiles sales Back issues sales PPV Page charges, etc Pay-to-publish fees
Two notional (and simplified) journal income models Publisher income without a Big Deal $400M of journal income, of which $300M institutional Renewal rate of 95%; annual price increase of 8% $300M renews as $307.80M Publisher income with a Big Deal $400M of journal income, of which $300M institutional $150M under Big Deals, $150M unprotected Renewal rate of 95% on unprotected and 99% on Big Deals Annual price increase of 8% on unprotected and 5% on Big Deals $300M renews as $309.83M Plus income from additional licence fees, say $15-30M
Why do libraries take up the Big Deal? Why do libraries... Commit to multi-year licensing agreements? Agree to annual price increases above the rate of inflation? Accept terms and conditions which prevent them cancelling low-use journal subscriptions? Reduce their flexibility? Pay even more to license packages of journals to which they have never subscribed? Transfer spending from books to journals?
Why do libraries take up the Big Deal? Stability and predictability of expenditure Lower annual price increases on core journal subscriptions Low-price access to many more journals Greatly increased usage of journal collections Lower cost per download Demand from faculty and students for access to more journal literature Support for interdisciplinary research Lower ILL costs
ARL Statistics 2005-2006 YearTotal Expenditure Serials Expenditure Serials Purchased Unit CostProportion of Total Expenditure 1986$8,361,092$1,496,77515,775$89.8117.90% 1996$13,870,378$3,389,11814,723$223.9824.43% 2006$21,694,210$6,307,29223,849$251.3829.07% Median Values for Time-Series Trends
UK Library Statistics. 2007 Update. YearTotal Acquisitions Expenditure Serials Expenditure Serials Purchased Unit CostProportion of Total Acquisitions Expenditure 1995£101,085,000£54,011,000533,000£101.3353.43% 2005£173,821,000£96,101,0001,200,000£80.0855.28% University Library Spending on Books, Journals and Electronic Resources. 2007 Update. Publishers Association, May 2007.
Does the Big Deal offer good value to libraries? Librarians have to make this judgement, but... Huge take-up across the world suggests that most librarians believe it offers good value Librarians are willing to trade some flexibility in their purchasing for lower price increases and access to more content Small and medium libraries benefit significantly from greatly increased access to journal literature, at relatively low additional costs in the context of consortium agreements There is good evidence that packages of additional journals are well used, driving down cost-per-use Unpublished JISC study, publishers own research
Impacts on the market Stasis Large part of library expenditure is tied up with a relatively small number of large publishers Less flexibility in switching expenditure, especially to non- journal products, and to smaller publishers Difficulty of launching new journals Perceived disempowerment of librarians Possible impact on aggregators Are aggregated journal databases still needed? Lack of an exit strategy What happens if a library wishes to withdraw from a Big Deal, after several years of capped price increases?
Longer-term issues Continuing divergence between standard publisher price increases and library budget increases Journal prices: 7-9%, driven by inflation and increased research output Library budgets: 2-3%, and a decreasing proportion of university budgets Transition to e-only Will publishers save any costs and, if so, will they pass on any of the savings? Open Access Growth in funded OA; politics; zealotry
The UC way forward... The Promise of Value-based Journal Prices and Negotiation: A UC Report and View Forward University of California Libraries Collection Development Committee. January 2007 Abstract In pursuit of their scholarly communication agenda, the University of California ten-campus libraries have posited and tested the case that a journals institutional price can and should be related to its value to the academic enterprise. We developed and tested a set of metrics that comprise value-based pricing of scholarly journals. The metrics are the measurable impact of the journal, the transparent measures of production costs, the institutionally-based contributions to the journal, such as editorial labor, and the transaction efficiencies from consortial purchases. Initial modeling and use of the approaches are promising, leading the libraries to employ and further develop the approaches and share their work to date with the larger community. http://libraries.universityofcalifornia.edu/cdc/valuebasedprices.pdf
Licensing of ebooks Books are different to journals Books are generally not sold on subscription (though book series may be sold on standing order) An established journals content, size and even usage are relatively predictable; libraries can put a value on it before purchasing. The journals brand guarantees a certain quality and coverage of a specific niche. A publishers annual output of books is far less predictable and quality depends on authors more than publisher brands. Books are purchased differently than journals, eg on approval plans, etc
Licensing of ebooks Books are less homogeneous than journals Scholarly reference works, eg Grove Music and Art, Blackwell Encyclopedia of Management, Oxford Companion to American Literature, handbooks, etc Most such major reference works already available online though print still outsells digital Text books Bought primarily by students, not libraries. Some experiments underway by major text book publishers but no proven model yet for licensing by institutions Monographs Most current activity in this area
An immature market Publishers Some large publishers making most or all of monograph output available in both print and digital formats, eg Elsevier, Springer, Wiley; other large publishers making no monographs available in digital form yet Publishers still testing different sales models, eg licensing of individual titles (Wiley) and licensing only in collections (eg Oxford Scholarship Online); publishers also testing different pricing models, eg site licensing at same price as print, concurrent user pricing, discounting for bulk purchases, etc Models used for backlist may not be appropriate to front list Publishers also testing sales channels, eg direct and via intermediaries
An immature market Intermediaries Booksellers and library suppliers still gearing up to handle ebook sales Role of intermediaries in supply chain not clear until sales models are firmed up, eg individual titles (making intermediaries essential) or collections Aggregators (eg MyiLibrary, netLibrary, ebrary, etc) have had several false starts and are still testing business models, etc, with both publishers and libraries
An immature market Libraries Demand from libraries is now growing. Some, eg Toronto, have made a big commitment to ebooks based on the success of ejournals Some libraries buying in bulk where there is a clear cost benefit Most libraries looking for more flexibility than with journals No consensus yet on platforms, sales models, etc General view that many publishers are not themselves yet geared up to sell ebooks effectively
Big Deals for ebooks? Reference publishing will become predominantly digital Monograph publishing will become largely digital, but over a longer period of time Purchasing of monographs will remain selective, though there may be Small Deals for the lists of niche publishers or for the output of larger publishers in specific disciplines The future roles of aggregators, booksellers and library suppliers is unclear; much will depend on the standardisation of pricing models, terms of sale, formats and delivery platforms There are not the same drivers for the Big Deal as with journals