Presentation on theme: "Announcements Please read Chapter 4 HW 1 is due now"— Presentation transcript:
0 ECE 476 Power System Analysis Lecture 4: Three-Phase, Power System OperationsProf. Tom OverbyeDept. of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
1 Announcements Please read Chapter 4 HW 1 is due now It does not need to be turned in, but will be covered by an in-class quiz on Sept 10San Diego Gas & Electric is on campus for the ECE Career Fair on 9/9) (ARC Gym) and then for interviews on 9/10
2 Three-Phase - Wye Connection There are two ways to connect 3 systemsWye (Y)Delta ()
3 Wye Connection Line Voltages VanVcnVbnVabVcaVbc-Vbn(α = 0 in this case)Line-to-linevoltages arealso balanced
4 Wye Connection, cont’dDefine voltage/current across/through device to be phase voltage/currentDefine voltage/current across/through lines to be line voltage/current
12 Per Phase AnalysisPer phase analysis allows analysis of balanced 3 systems with the same effort as for a single phase systemBalanced 3 Theorem: For a balanced 3 system withAll loads and sources Y connectedNo mutual Inductance between phases
13 Per Phase Analysis, cont’d ThenAll neutrals are at the same potentialAll phases are COMPLETELY decoupledAll system values are the same sequence as sources. The sequence order we’ve been using (phase b lags phase a and phase c lags phase a) is known as “positive” sequence; later in the course we’ll discuss negative and zero sequence systems.
14 Per Phase Analysis Procedure To do per phase analysisConvert all load/sources to equivalent Y’sSolve phase “a” independent of the other phasesTotal system power S = 3 Va Ia*If desired, phase “b” and “c” values can be determined by inspection (i.e., ±120° degree phase shifts)If necessary, go back to original circuit to determine line-line values or internal values.
15 Per Phase ExampleAssume a 3, Y-connected generator with Van = 10 volts supplies a -connected load with Z = -j through a transmission line with impedance of j0.1 per phase. The load is also connected to a -connected generator with Va”b” = 10 through a second transmission line which also has an impedance of j0.1 per phase.Find1. The load voltage Va’b’2. The total power supplied by each generator, SY and S
20 Power System Operations Overview Goal is to provide an intuitive feel for power system operationEmphasis will be on the impact of the transmission systemIntroduce basic power flow concepts through small system examples
21 Power System BasicsAll power systems have three major components: Generation, Load and Transmission/Distribution.Generation: Creates electric power.Load: Consumes electric power.Transmission/Distribution: Transmits electric power from generation to load.Lines/transformers operating at voltages above 100 kV are usually called the transmission system. The transmission system is usually networked.Lines/transformers operating at voltages below 100 kV are usually called the distribution system (radial).
23 Small PowerWorld Simulator Case Load withgreenarrowsindicatingamountof MWflowNote thepowerbalance ateach busUsedto controloutput ofgeneratorDirection of arrow is used to indicatedirection of real power (MW) flow
24 Power Balance Constraints Power flow refers to how the power is moving through the system.At all times in the simulation the total power flowing into any bus MUST be zero!This is know as Kirchhoff’s law. And it can not be repealed or modified.Power is lost in the transmission system.
25 Basic Power ControlOpening or closing a circuit breaker causes the power flow to instantaneously(nearly) change.No other way to directly control power flow in a transmission line.By changing generation or load, or by switching other lines, we can indirectly change this flow.
26 Modeling Consideration – Change is Not Really Instantaneous! The change isn’t really instantaneous because of propagation delays, which are near the speed of light; there also wave reflection issuesThis will be addressed more in Chapters 5 and 13Red is the vs end, green the v2 end
27 Transmission Line Limits Power flow in transmission line is limited by heating considerations.Losses (I2 R) can heat up the line, causing it to sag.Each line has a limit; Simulator does not allow you to continually exceed this limit. Many utilities use winter/summer limits.
29 Interconnected Operation Power systems are interconnected across large distances. For example most of North America east of the Rockies is one system, with most of Texas and Quebec being major exceptionsIndividual utilities only own and operate a small portion of the system, which is referred to an operating area (or an area).
30 Operating AreasTransmission lines that join two areas are known as tie-lines.The net power out of an area is the sum of the flow on its tie-lines.The flow out of an area is equal to total gen - total load - total losses = tie-flow
31 Area Control Error (ACE) The area control error is the difference between the actual flow out of an area, and the scheduled flow.There is also a frequency dependent component that we’ll address in Chapter 12Ideally the ACE should always be zero.Because the load is constantly changing, each utility must constantly change its generation to “chase” the ACE.
32 Automatic Generation Control Most utilities use automatic generation control (AGC) to automatically change their generation to keep their ACE close to zero.Usually the utility control center calculates ACE based upon tie-line flows; then the AGC module sends control signals out to the generators every couple seconds.
33 Three Bus Case on AGC Generation is automatically changed to match change in loadNet tie flow isclose to zero
34 MISO Real-Time ACEPreviously individual utilities did their own ACE calculations; now we are part of MISO, which does one for theregion
35 MISO Real-Time ACEMISO's real-time ACE is available online (along with lots of other data)