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Age of Exploration 1415-1476 A.D.
Europe Explores the Sea Europeans traded with Asia long before the Renaissance. Spices – especially pepper- was very valuable – Over $10 per ounce By 1400s- Europe wanted other spices – Cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and pepper
Spice Islands Used spices to preserve food, add flavor, medicines, and perfumes. Chief source of spices was the island of Moluccas in present day Indonesia
Europe Explore the Seas Europeans wanted to gain direct access to the spice markets. Portugal and Spain looked for alternate routes to bypass the Mediterranean route to Asia Other motives: – Desire for ‘crusades’ against Muslims – Renaissance spirit of adventure
Improved Technology New inventions allowed travel on the high seas – Cartographers created more accurate maps Astrolabe Created by Greeks, perfected by Arabs, – Used to determine latitude at sea using the stars
Caravel Combined square sails with Arab lateen, or triangular sails. Made it possible to sail into the wind.
Portugal Sails Eastward Portugal led the way in exploration Strong enough to seize territory in Muslim North Africa. Inspired Prince Henry – Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator Embodied the crusading drive and the new spirit of exploration Hoped to expand Christianity To find the source of African gold
Mapping the Africa Coast Prince Henry gathered scientists, cartographers, and other experts – Redesigned ships – Prepared maps – Trained captains and crews for long voyages Goal was to explore the west coast of Africa Henry died in 1460
Bartholomeu Dias Portuguese navigator Rounded the southern tip of Africa Known as the Cape of Good Hope – Opened the way for sea route to Asia
Vasco Da Gama 1497, led four ships around the Cape of Good Hope 10 month voyage reached Calicut, India Long voyage home – Lost half of ships – Sailors died of thirst, hunger and scurvy Highly profitable journey – Cargo of spices sold at a profit of 3,000%
Vasco da Gama
Vasco Da Gama Second voyage 1502 Treaty of Friendship forced on ruler of Calicut – Set up shop to buy spices and store them Portuguese seized key ports around Indian ocean Established a vast trading empire.
Columbus Sails West Christopher Columbus from Italian port of Genoa Wanted to reach the Indies by sailing west Most educated people knew the earth was round. Two mistakes – Underestimated the size of the earth – Two continents in his path
Voyages of Columbus Enterprise of the Indies financed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain 1492 sailed west aboard – Nina – Pinta – Santa Maria Reached landfall on October 12 th He thought he had reached the Indies
Voyages of Columbus Sailed around Caribbean – Called the locals “Indians” 1493 returned to a heroes welcome in Spain – Convinced he a reached the coast of East Asia Europeans realized he had reached continents unknown to them before.
Line of Demarcation Spain and Portugal both claimed lands Columbus explored 1493, Pope Alexander VI stepped in to keep the peace Set up a line dividing the non-European world into two zones – Spain had trading and exploration rights west of the line – Portugal had trading and exploration rights east of the line
Naming the New World 1507, German cartographer read about the “new world” – Written by Amerigo Vespucci He named it America Area explored by Columbus became known as the “West Indies”
Vasco Nunez de Balboa With Native American help found passage through the tropical forest of Panama Discovered what he called the South Sea in 1513
Ferdinand Magellan Sailed five ships along the coast of South America looking for passage around it November 1520 – entered bay that become the Strait of Magellan – Entered the “South Sea” Renamed it “Pacific” – meaning peaceful
Circumnavigation Crew wanted to return to Spain the way they had come. Magellan convinced another three weeks to the Spice Islands Sailed for four months before reaching the Philippines – Magellan killed in a local dispute One ship and 18 sailors complete the voyage back to Spain – circumnavigating the globe
Search for the Northwest Passage English, Dutch and French explorers looked for a passage around North America – Called the Northwest Passage 1497 King Henry VII of England set Venetian explorer John Cabot – Discovered rich fishing grounds that he claimed for England
Search for the Northwest Passage The French sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River Henry Hudson sailed for the Dutch – Explored the Hudson River Valley Northwest passage never found?
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