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Presentation on theme: "I NTERACTIVE P RESENTATION S LIDES F OR I NTRODUCTORY P SYCHOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:


2 Biological Psychology The Action Potential Anatomy of the Synapse Types of Neurotransmitters The Nervous System The Endocrine System 4 9 16 20 21 26

3 Fact or Falsehood? false true false true Neural impulses travel through the human body at the same speed that electricity travels through a wire. Endorphins are neurotransmitter molecules similar to morphine. For you to be able to run, your central nervous system must “talk” to your leg muscles. The simplest neural pathways are those that govern our sexual drives. The knee-jerk reflex requires the activity of the central nervous system.

4 Biological Psychology Everything psychological— every idea, every mood, every urge—is simultaneously biological. is the scientific study of links between biological and psychological processes.  behavioral neuroscientists  neuropsychologists  behavior geneticists  physiological psychologists  biopsychologists There are many kinds of biological psychologists, including:

5  Cell body (soma) – nucleus with chromosomes  Dendrites – receive information from other neurons  Axon – transmits information to other neurons, muscles, and glands The Neuron

6  Junction between one neuron’s axon and another’s dendrites/cell body  Neurotransmitters cross the synapse  Plays a fundamental role in the communication between neurons The Synapse

7  Insulating layer of fatty material  Composed of glial cells  Helps efficient transmission of signals to other cells  Gaps in myelin sheath are nodes of Ranvier Myelin Video: Signal Transmission Video: Signal Transmission

8  Sensory  Interneurons  Motor Types of Neurons

9 The Action Potential  Electrical charge gathered by dendrites and cell body  Electrical charge travels down the axon to synapse  Stimulates the release of neurotransmitters into synapse  Occurs only when electrical signal is at a certain level (threshold)  “All-or-none”—electrical impulse is the same no matter how much stimulation the neuron receives  Neuron returns to resting state after electrical charge is transmitted

10  High concentration of K+ inside neuron  Lower concentration of K+ outside neuron  Higher concentration of Na+ outside neuron  K+ channels in cell membrane open in resting state  K+ moves out of neuron, leaving a -70 mv charge The Resting Potential Animation: Ion Flow: Part 1 Animation: Ion Flow: Part 1

11  The electrical charge reaches a threshold  K+ channels close  Na+ channels open  Na+ flows into the neuron  + charge inside the neuron increases  Charge inside the neuron is +40 millivolts The Action Potential is Initiated Animation: Ion Flow: Part 2 Animation: Ion Flow: Part 2

12  Intracellular fluid is positively charged (+40 millivolts)  Adjacent Na+ channels open  The action potential travels down the axon membrane  K+ channels open  K+ moves out of the cell  Intracellular fluid becomes negative again  K+ channels close The Action Potential Travels Down the Axon Animation: Ion Flow: Part 3 Animation: Ion Flow: Part 3

13  Na+ and K+ channels close  Na+ concentration is higher inside the cell  K+ concentration is lower inside the cell  Na+/K+ pump restores resting state charge Na+/K+ Pump Restores Ion Balance Animation: Ion Flow: Part Animation: Ion Flow: Part

14  The time following an action potential  Another action potential can’t occur during the refractory period  After the action potential reaches +40 mv, membrane channels return to original state  The neuron can now generate another action potential The Refractory Period

15 Excitatory Messages Inhibitory Messages Animation: Signal Transmission Animation: Signal Transmission Animation: Signal Transmission Animation: Signal Transmission

16  Presynaptic neuron’s axons end in terminal buttons  Terminal buttons contain synaptic vesicles  Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit information across the synaptic gap (cleft)  Postsynaptic neuron’s dendrites contain receptor sites  Receptor sites fit certain neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters bind to specific receptor sites in a lock-and-key system Anatomy of the Synapse

17 Synaptic Transmission What happens to the neurotransmitters in the synapse? Animation: Synaptic Transmission: Part 2 Animation: Synaptic Transmission: Part 2 Animation: Synaptic Transmission: Part 1 Animation: Synaptic Transmission: Part 1

18  Reuptake—Neurotransmitters are absorbed back into the presynaptic neuron  Enzyme Deactivation (Disassembly)— Neurotransmitters are broken down by enzymes in the synapse  Autoreceptors— Neurotransmitters bind to autoreceptor sites on the presynaptic neuron  Neurotransmitters passively drift out of the synaptic gap What happens to neurotransmitters in the synapse?

19 Video: Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Study Video: Parkinson’s Disease: A Case Study

20 Acetylcholine (ACh) Dopamine Serotonin Norepinephrine Endorphins Enables muscle action, learning and memory With Alzheimer’s, ACh producing neurons deteriorate Influences movement, learning, attention and emotion High levels linked to schizophrenia, low levels linked to Parkinson’s disease Affects mood, hunger, sleep arousal Low levels linked to depression Helps control alertness and arousal Low levels depress mood Boosts mood, lessens pain Artificial opiates cause brain to stop producing endorphins Functions Malfunctions Types of Neurotransmitters

21  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  Central Nervous System (CNS) The Nervous System

22 Connects the central nervous system to the body’s organs and muscles  Autonomic nervous system (ANS)  Somatic nervous system (skeletal nervous system) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

23 The Central Nervous System  Brain  Spinal cord  These are composed of interneurons

24  Sympathetic Nervous System  Parasympathetic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

25 Dual Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System  Arousal  Returning the body to its resting state

26 SLIDEDESCRIPTIONCREDIT Slide 1 Brain graphicNLshop/ Slide 4 Man playing violinJeremy Woodhouse/ Getty Images Slide 20 Photo of man with gas maskThinkstock Despair by MunchSuperstock Roller coasterAP Photo Photo of rock climberGetty Images Photo Credits


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