Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire Part 1"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Byzantine Empire Part 1 One God, One Empire, One Religion
2 The Eastern EmpireAs Western Europe succumbed to the Germanic invasions, imperial power shifted to the Byzantine Empire (the eastern part of the Roman Empire).
3 ConstantinopleConstantinople became the sole capitol of the empire and remained so until the successful revival of the western empire in the 8th century by Charlemagne.
4 The Reign of JustinianThe height of the first period of Byzantine history ( ) was the reign of Emperor Justinian (r ) and his wife Empress Theodora (d. 548)
5 The Reign of JustinianGeneral Belisarius was sent to recover lands in Africa, Rome, Spain and Italy and restore glory to the empireJustinian ruled with absolute powerThe emperor headed the state AND the Church (Theocracy)
6 The Imperial Goal: Unity Justinian’s goal in the East was to centralize government and impose conformity.Wanted to unify legal system and Church doctrine.Developed the Justinian Code to regulate the laws and legal system in the empire.This will become the basis for future European system of lawsOne God One Empire One Religion
7 Justinian Code: The Law Justinian collected and revised Roman law.This code of law served the Byzantine Empire for over 900 years.
8 Eastern Orthodoxy: Religion Religion helped centralize the empireChristianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empireThe Church in the East was called the Eastern Orthodox Church
9 Increase in Church Wealth The Church was lead by bishops called patriarchsThe emperor was still the head of the ChurchPatriarchs of the Church acquired enormous wealth in the form of land and gold.
10 Struggles Within the Church The pope was the head of the Roman Catholic Church in the WestPatriarchs led the Orthodox Church in the EastDisputes over icons (religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions) caused major problemsDifferences in the Western and Eastern churches continued to grow
11 The Iconoclastic Controversy The Icon Controversy - A movement that denied the holiness of religious images, devastated much of the empire for over a hundred years.During the eighth and early ninth centuries the use of such images was prohibited, by the Byzantine Empire.The Pope disagreed with this policy. It caused a GREAT SCHISM (divide) between the two factions in 1054 that divided the church over the use of ICONS
12 Strong CitiesDuring Justinian’s reign, the empire’s strength was at its height , more than 1,500 cities.The largest - Constantinople, the cultural crossroads of Asian and European civilizations.
13 Extensive Building Plans Justinian was an ambitious builder. His greatest monument was the magnificent domed church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), which was constructed in just five years .
14 The Empire at Its Height The empire was at its height In 565, during Justinian’s reign. It included most of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
15 Decline in the 7th Century In the seventh century the empire lost Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt, and North Africa to invading Islamic (Muslim) armies.
16 Recovery of TerritoryThe Byzantines called upon the European states to push back the Muslim conquerors.The European states complied, successfully pushing back the invadersReturned territory to the Byzantines
17 Conquered by the Ottoman Turks In 1453, the city was finally and permanently conquered by the Ottoman Turk Mehmet the ConquerorRenamed Istanbul (Turkey)Byzantine culture, law, and administration came to its final end. (1000 yrs after the fall of Rome)
18 Contribution to Western Civilization Throughout the early Middle Ages, the Byzantine Empire remained a protective barrier between western Europe and hostile Persian, Arab, and Turkish armies.The Byzantines were also a major reason classical learning and science survived. The cities of the Byzantine Empire provided a model of a civilized society preserving the Greco/Roman culture.