The Geosphere Geosphere- the solid part of the earth –Rock –Soil –Sediment
The Geosphere Studying the earth’s interior –Deepest well (12 km) –Seismic waves
The Geosphere The Composition of the Earth –Crust –Mantle –Core
The Geosphere Structure of the Earth –Lithosphere –Athenoshere –Mesosphere –Outer Core –Inner Core
The Geosphere Plate Tectonics- rigid layer of the lithosphere is divided into pieces called plates that glide over the underlying athenosphere. –Most geologic activity occurs where these plates meet called plate boundaries. –Colliding plates build mountains.
The Geosphere Earthquakes –Occur along faults (breaks in the earths plates at plate boundaries) –Measured using the Richter Scale- each whole # increase equals about 31 times more power. 2.0- Smallest that can be felt 9.5- largest ever recorded
The Atmosphere Troposphere –Up to 18 km high –Weather occurs here –Densest layer of the atmosphere –Temperature decreases with altitude
The Atmosphere Stratosphere –From 18 – 50 km high –Temperature increases as altitude increases –Ozone layer- filters out UV radiation entering the earth’s atmosphere.
The atmosphere Mesosphere –From 50 – 80 km –Coldest layers of the atmosphere (-93 C)
The Atmosphere Thermosphere –From 80 – 550 km high –Hottest layer of the atmosphere (2000 C) –Absorbs x-rays and gamma rays that enter the earth’s atmosphere. –Ionosphere- layer of ions found in the lower thermosphere.
The Atmosphere Energy in the atmosphere –Radiation-transfer of energy across a space. –Conduction- heat flow from a warmer object to a cooler object –Convection- transfer of heat by air currents
The Hydrosphere Oceans- –The global temperature regulator- The ocean absorbs energy from the sun and stores this energy. This ability to absorb and store energy regulates the global atmospheric temperature.
The Hydrosphere Oceans- –Currents- surface currents are wind driven and are considered warm-water or cols-water currents.
The Hydrosphere Freshwater –Around 3% of the earths water is freshwater. –Most of the freshwater is locked in icecaps and glaciers. River systems –A network of streams that drains an area of land.
The Hydrosphere Groundwater –When water reaches the land as precipitation it either runs off into a stream or soaks into the ground. –Most water enters the ground –Aquifer- a layer of rock that stores ground water. Recharge zone- surface of the land where water enters the aquifer