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Section 2: Europe Goes to War

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1 Section 2: Europe Goes to War
Chapter 24 Section 2: Europe Goes to War

2 Invasion of Poland After Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia, GB & France abandoned appeasement & prepared for war Warned that further expansion meant war March 31, 1939 GB & France formally pledged to support Poland

3 Hitler’s Pact with Stalin
Both realized they had much to gain by working together Aug- signed a ten year nonaggression pact, which eliminated an attack from the east

4 Secret document attached to the pact was that Germany & the Soviet Union would divide up the countries of eastern Europe Sept 1- Hitler invaded Poland Sept 3- Britain & France declared war on Germany

5 Lightning War GB, France, & Poland together had more soldiers & infantry units than Germany Each German division had superior firepower & organized its tanks into separate armored divisions

6 Germans used the blitzkrieg that included a fast, concentrated air & land attack that took the enemy’s army by surprise Using this tactic, they overran Poland in less than 1 month SU joined this attack mid-Sept.

7 War in the West After Poland fell, the war entered a quiet period dubbed “phony war” Germans labeled it “sitzkrieg” (sit down war)

8 German troops waited while the French forces held their defenses at the Maginot Line (massive string of fortifications along France’s border with Germany

9 2 problems Protected only the part of France that bordered Germany All guns pointed east towards Germany

10 Germany attacks April 9, Hitler began an attack on Denmark & Norway May 16- launched a blitzkrieg on the Netherlands, Belgium, & Luxembourg Britain & France were too late to defend Belgium

11 Mid May- invaded northern France via Belgium & raced up the English Channel, splitting the main French armies to the south from the British & French troops in northern France & Belgium

12 Dunkirk Allied forces in the north retreated to the coastal city of Dunkirk 1 of the greatest rescues took place They assembled a makeshift fleet consisting of tugboats, yachts, & private crafts (900 total carrying 340,000 soldiers across the English Channel to GB) while being bombed by the Luftwaffe

13 The Fall of France June 10- French government abandoned Paris Italy declared war of GB & France June 22- France officially surrendered

14 Terms Germany occupied the northern 3/5 of France & the Atlantic coast south to Spain The French government supervised the south from Vichy Adopted a policy of collaboration with Germany

15 Free France (government in exile in London) struggled against German invaders in central & west Africa Led by Charles de Gaulle- backed the underground resistance movement in France

16 The Battle of Britain Relentless Attack To neutralize the British navy, Germany turned to the air Aug launched the greatest air assault yet

17 Group of German bombers strayed off course & bombed London
Battle of Britain First Germany only targeted British ports, airfields, & radar installations, later attacked aircraft factories & oil storage tanks Group of German bombers strayed off course & bombed London 2 days later GB bombed Berlin

18 Hitler ordered massive bombing raids on GB cities to break people’s will to resist

19 Courageous Defense British RAF defended the homeland Inflicted heavy damage on the attackers By the end of 1941, German air raids ended

20 Advantage Feb scientists cracked the code Germany used for top secret communications British could get a general idea of Hitler’s battle plans

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