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2  Provides consistency across institutions  Allows readers to cross-reference your work easily  Gives you credibility as a writer  Helps you keep track of sources and information as you build your paper  Helps protect you from plagiarism Why use a research and documentation style?

3 What is included in a research and documentation style? No matter which style you use, it boils down to three items:  Format of paper – what the paper looks like  In-text citations – show reader you’re using borrowed material (making a connection)  Reference page – gives reader a list of works that were used to create your paper

4 APA Paper Format Four main parts to the traditional APA paper: 1. Title page – following general APA guidelines 2. Abstract – a one-paragraph summary of your paper 3. Body of paper – presented in a logical order 4. References page – lists all the sources you used in your paper  For all sections of paper, use 12 point, Times New Roman font (examples shown are not Times New Roman)  Times New Roman (a serif font)

5 APA Title Page Note: APA does not give official guidelines for a title page of a college paper; the following are general APA title page guidelines. ALWAYS check with instructor!  Running head – in header, flush left, condensed version of title (no more than 50 characters) in all caps with words “Running head:”  Page number in upper right  Title – centered on page using capital letters as a title should; no bold, italics, or large fonts  Your name and school (your instructor may also require class, date)– centered, double-spaced  At bottom of page sometimes an “Author Note”

6 Example Title Page

7 APA Abstract  An abstract is simply a summary of your paper’s main points, in order – one paragraph on its own page.  Appears immediately after the title page  Has the word Abstract centered at top (again, in simple, 12 point font – not underlined or in italics or anything special)  Does not need to be indented  Double-spaced, 1” margins like rest of paper  Has page number and running head – running head no longer has words “Running head:” in front of it

8 Sample of Abstract

9 APA Body of Paper  12 pt. font, Times New Roman, black  1” margins all around  Everything is double-spaced and left aligned  Page numbers (upper right) and running head (flush left) continue in header  If you use headings to organize your paper, major headings are centered and boldfaced. Capitalize first letters of words  First page of body (page 3) repeats full title, centered at top of page

10 Sample First Page of Body Full title, centered – no extra spaces after title Paragraphs are indented – no extra spaces after paragraph

11 APA In-text Citations  APA uses parenthetical citations  A citation should appear within/after the sentence where the borrowed material appears. This includes direct quotations, paraphrases and summaries.  A citation is a guideline for your reader: it shows you are making a connection to another author.  Like a scavenger hunt!  Gives you credibility – research is all about connecting ideas (yours and others)

12 APA In-text Citations  Every citation includes AT LEAST the author’s last name and the year of publication somewhere within the borrowed material.  Direct quotations also include page numbers, if available (can also use paragraph number).  Page numbers are also encouraged with paraphrases from difficult or lengthy texts (helps reader find original passage). Use p. for a page number (pp. for multiple pages).  The author’s name the year of publication are always beside one another.

13 Special Considerations for Citations  Number of authors – one or two authors, cite names every time reference occurs  Three – five authors – cite all of their names the first time you use the source; after that, only the first author and et al. to stand in for others  Six or more authors – always just the first author’s name and et al.

14 APA In-text Citations - Examples

15 APA Reference Page  The Reference page is its own page, the last one of the paper; it still has the running head and page number  Has the word References at top, centered  Double-spacing continues  Entries are alphabetized by first word in entry (typically authors’ last names)  First line of entry is flush-left; subsequent lines are indented once – hanging indent (for ease of reading).  Your reader should be able to use the info on the reference page and find the EXACT SAME source you used.

16 APA Reference Page  APA format has unique rules for capitalizing (or not) titles of books and journal articles.  Titles of books and articles use capital letters like a sentence – NOT every word capitalized  Basic structure for an entry is a book with one author:  Author’s name (Last name, First initial)  Year in paretheses  Title (BIG titles are italics; smaller titles are normal type)  Publication info (City, ST: Publisher – NOT Inc or Co)  Periods are used to separate the above sections.  Careful of electronic “help.”

17 APA Reference Page – Example Last name, Initial. (year). Title like a sentence. Publication information. Example of journal article:

18 Note: Hanging indent – first line is flush left; subsequent lines are indented once (five spaces) Article title like a sentence; journal title uses traditional capitalization

19 Other Reference Guidelines  Two to seven authors – list all of them in the order they appear on the article:  Brown, J., McMann, F., Anderson, Q., Smith, A.  Eight or more, list the first six, then points of ellipsis (…) and last author’s name  Electronic sources require a url or DOI at end.  If you use a url or DOI at end of an entry, don’t put a period after it (could confuse reader)  If no author, begin entry with title of work followed by year in parentheses.

20 DOI is on the first page of many articles found in NCLive databases. If not there, it will be on the summary screen for the article.

21 Look it up!  No one has this memorized!  Key is knowing where to look up how your specific resource should be listed.

22 Additional Help with APA Format  Your instructor  Handbook from English classes, A Writer’s Reference  LAC  APA Publication Manual (use most current edition)  Purdue OWL:


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