Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Of Life KEY CONCEPT All living things are based on atoms and their interactions."— Presentation transcript:
Chemistry Of Life KEY CONCEPT All living things are based on atoms and their interactions.
Chemistry Of Life Living things consist of atoms of different elements. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means. An element is one type of atom. H O Hydrogen atom (H) Oxygen atom (O)
Chemistry Of Life –The nucleus has protons and neutrons. –Electrons are in energy levels outside nucleus. Oxygen atom (O) Nucleus: 8 protons (+) 8 neutrons outermost energy level: 6 electrons (-) inner energy level: 2 electrons (-) An atom has a nucleus and electrons.
Atomic number is equal to the number of electrons or the number of protons. The atomic mass is the mass of the atom A proton weighs one atomic mass unit A neutron weighs one atomic mass unit A electron has so little mass that it isn’t counted Atomic mass – Atomic number = # of neutrons
Chemistry Of Life –water (H 2 O) O HH _ ++ A compound is made of atoms of different elements bonded together.
Chemistry Of Life –carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) A compound is made of atoms of different elements bonded together. –water (H 2 O)
Chemistry Of Life –many other carbon-based compounds in living things A compound is made of atoms of different elements bonded together. –water (H 2 O) –carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) A molecule is one or more atoms bonded together. All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.
Chemistry Of Life Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons. An ion is an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons. –positive ions –negative ions Ionic bonds form between oppositely charged ions. Sodium atom (Na)Chlorine atom (CI)Sodium ion (Na + )Chloride ion (CI - ) Na loses an electron to CI ionic bond gained electron
Chemistry Of Life Atoms share pairs of electrons in covalent bonds. A covalent bond forms when atoms share a pair of electrons. covalent bonds Oxygen atom (O)Carbon atom (C)Oxygen atom (O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) –multiple covalent bonds –diatomic molecules
Chemistry Of Life Water molecules bind to other water molecules through hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds form whenever there are oxygen and hydrogen atoms in a molecule or group of molecules. –Examples: –Water surface tension –Bonds between DNA strands –Protein folding Molecules with an unequal distribution of charges are called polar molecules. Hydrogen bonds are very weak. + + _
Chemistry Of Life KEY CONCEPT Water’s unique properties allow life to exist on Earth.
Chemistry Of Life O HH _ ++ Life depends on hydrogen bonds in water. Water is a polar molecule. –Polar molecules have slightly charged regions. – Nonpolar molecules do not have charged regions. – Hydrogen bonds form between slightly positive hydrogen atoms and slightly negative atoms.
Chemistry Of Life Hydrogen bonds are responsible for three important properties of water. –high specific heat –cohesion –adhesion
Chemistry Of Life Many compounds dissolve in water. A solution is formed when one substance dissolves in another. –A solution is a homogeneous mixture. –Solvents dissolve other substances. –Solutes dissolve in a solvent. solution
Chemistry Of Life “Like dissolves like.” –Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes. –Nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes. –Polar substances and nonpolar substances generally remain separate.
Chemistry Of Life Some compounds form acids or bases. An acid releases a hydrogen ion when it dissolves in water. –high H + concentration –pH less than 7 more acidic stomach acid pH between 1 and 3
Chemistry Of Life A base removes hydrogen ions from a solution. –low H + concentration –pH greater than 7 bile pH between 8 and 9 more basic
Chemistry Of Life A neutral solution has a pH of 7. pure water pH 7
Chemistry Of Life KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.
Chemistry Of Life Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures. –straight chain –branched chain –ring
Chemistry Of Life Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together. –Monomers are the individual subunits. –Polymers are made of many monomers.
Chemistry Of Life Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Chemistry Of Life Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. –Carbohydrates include sugars and starches. –Monosaccharides are simple sugars. –Polysaccharides include starches, cellulose, and glycogen.
Chemistry Of Life Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells. Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure. Polymer (starch) Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure. Polymer (cellulose) Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structure monomer
Chemistry Of Life –Many contain carbon chains called fatty acids. –Fats and oils contain fatty acids bonded to glycerol. Lipids are nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol. Triglyceride
Chemistry Of Life Lipids have several different functions. –broken down as a source of energy –make up cell membranes – used to make hormones
Chemistry Of Life Fats and oils have different types of fatty acids. –saturated fatty acids –unsaturated fatty acids
Chemistry Of Life Phospholipids make up all cell membranes. –Polar phosphate “head” –Nonpolar fatty acid “tails” Phospholipid
Chemistry Of Life Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers. –Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms.
Chemistry Of Life –Amino acids differ in side groups, or R groups. Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers. –Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms.
Chemistry Of Life –Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds. Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers. –Amino acids differ in side groups, or R groups. –Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms.
Chemistry Of Life Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids. –Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape. –Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function. hydrogen bond Hemoglobin
Chemistry Of Life Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides.
Chemistry Of Life –Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. A phosphate group nitrogen-containing molecule, called a base deoxyribose (sugar) Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides.
Chemistry Of Life –DNA stores genetic information. Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides. –Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. –RNA builds proteins. DNA RNA
Chemistry Of Life KEY CONCEPT Life depends on chemical reactions.
Chemistry Of Life Bonds break and form during chemical reactions. Chemical reactions change substances into different ones by breaking and forming chemical bonds. –Reactants are changed during a chemical reaction. –Products are made by a chemical reaction.
Chemistry Of Life A reaction is at equilibrium when reactants and products form at the same rate. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 Bond energy is the amount of energy that breaks a bond. –Energy is added to break bonds. –Energy is released when bonds form.
Chemistry Of Life Chemical reactions release or absorb energy. Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed to start a chemical reaction.
Chemistry Of Life Exothermic reactions release more energy than they absorb. –Reactants have higher bond energies than products. –Excess energy is released by the reaction.
Chemistry Of Life Endothermic reactions absorb more energy than they release. –Reactants have lower bond energies than products. –Energy is absorbed by the reaction to make up the difference.
Chemistry Of Life KEY CONCEPT Enzymes are catalysts for chemical reactions in living things.
Chemistry Of Life A catalyst lowers activation energy. Catalysts are substances that speed up chemical reactions. –decrease activation energy –increase reaction rate
Chemistry Of Life Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions. Enzymes are catalysts in living things. –Enzymes are needed for almost all processes. –Most enzymes are proteins.
Chemistry Of Life Disruptions in homeostasis can prevent enzymes from functioning. –Enzymes function best in a small range of conditions. –Changes in temperature and pH can break hydrogen bonds. –An enzyme’s function depends on its structure.
Chemistry Of Life An enzyme’s structure allows only certain reactants to bind to the enzyme. –substrates –active site substrates (reactants) enzyme Substrates bind to an enzyme at certain places called active sites.
Chemistry Of Life The lock-and-key model helps illustrate how enzymes function. –substrates brought together –bonds in substrates weakened Substrates bind to an enzyme at certain places called active sites. The enzyme brings substrates together and weakens their bonds. The catalyzed reaction forms a product that is released from the enzyme.