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Chapter 16 Study Notes: Groundwater
Chapter 16 Section 1 Study Notes:Water Beneath the Surface
1. ____________ is the water beneath Earth’s surface.Groundwater 1. ____________ is the water beneath Earth’s surface.
aquifer 2. An ______ is a body of rock that stores groundwater and allows it to flow.
3. The percentage of the total ________ of rock that consists of open spaces is called ________.volume porosity
4. The amount of uniformity in the size of rock or sediment _______ is called ______.particles sorting
5. __________ is the ability of rock to let fluids pass through its pores.Permeability
6. Open spaces in rock must be connected in order for the rock to be __________.permeable
7. The layer of an aquifer in which the pore space is completely filled with water is called the zone of _________. saturation
8. The upper surface of underground water is called the _____ _____.table
9. The aquifer zone that lies between the water table and Earth’s surface is called the zone of ________. aeration
10. ________ is the steepness of a slope.Gradient 10. ________ is the steepness of a slope.
11. A second water table that sits above the first water table is called a _______ water table.perched
12. The area where water from the surface can move through permeable rock to reach an aquifer is called a ________ zone. recharge
13. A natural flow of groundwater to Earth’s surface is called a ______.spring
14. Pumping water from a well lowers the water table around the well and causes a _____ of __________. cone depression
artesian formation 15. An _______ ________ is a sloping layer of permeable rock sandwiched between two layers of impermeable rock.
16. Wells, springs, and artesian formations bring _____ to Earth’s surface.water
Geysers hot springs 17. _______ and ___ ______ are land features formed by hot groundwater.
18. A ______ is a hot spring that erupts through vents.geyser
Chapter 16 Section 2 Study Notes:Groundwater and Chemical Weathering
1. Water rich in dissolved minerals is called _____ water.hard
2. Water with low concentrations of dissolved minerals is called ____ water.soft
3. Carbonic acid breaks down minerals in rock in a process called ________ __________.chemical weathering
4. Rock becomes chemically weathered when ________ acid, formed when water passes through soil and ________ minerals in the rock. carbonic dissolves
5. Rock that is rich in the mineral ______ is especially vulnerable to chemical weathering?calcite
cavern 6. A ______ is a natural cavity in rock that forms as a result of the _________ of minerals. dissolving
7. A cone-shaped deposit of calcite on the ceiling of a cave is called a ________.stalactite
8. Calcite formations standing on the floor of a cavern are called _________.stalagmite
9. A circular depression that forms on the surface when rock ________ is called a ________.dissolves sink hole
10. _____ __________ is irregular landforms created by the ________ weathering of rock by groundwater. Karst topography chemical
11. A region that clearly shows the results of chemical weathering is called _____ __________.Karst topography
12. Common features of karst topography include closely spaced _________ and _______.sink holes caverns
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