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# Argument Strategies. Aristotle’s 4 main arguments 1. argue about what is possible or impossible 1. If people continue to eat foods with chemicals, it.

## Presentation on theme: "Argument Strategies. Aristotle’s 4 main arguments 1. argue about what is possible or impossible 1. If people continue to eat foods with chemicals, it."— Presentation transcript:

Argument Strategies

Aristotle’s 4 main arguments 1. argue about what is possible or impossible 1. If people continue to eat foods with chemicals, it is possible that they will infuse cells that can develop cancer. 2. argue about what happened or didn’t happen 1. Because people continue to eat foods that contain GMO’s, the health risks have increased in adults and their future offspring. 3. argue about what will happen or won’t happen 1. If people continue to eat foods that contain GMO’s, they will inevitably become ill. 4. argue about how big or small it is 1. No matter how trivial the topic of GMO is to some in society, the results will heighten as people become more knowledgeable about GMO’s.

Finding the argument - reasoning 1. Argument by Authority 1. Paraphrase and summary 2. Deductive Argument 1. A conclusion that is made up of 2 logical premises 2. Moves from general to specific 3. Provides certainty 3. Inductive Argument 1. Moves from specific to general 2. Provides probability Socrates was Greek. (premise) Most Greeks eat fish. (premise Socrates ate fish. (conclusion)

Deductive vs Inductive All humans are mortal. (major premise) All humans are mortal. (major premise) Socrates is a human. (minor premise) Socrates is a human. (minor premise) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion) *This cat is black. *That cat is black *A third cat is black. Therefore all cats are black. This marble from the bag is black. That marble from the bag is black. A third marble from the bag is black. Therefore all the marbles in the bag black. If Joe has acute appendicitis, he is very sick. Joe does have acute appendicitis. Therefore he is very sick

Toulmin’s arguments claim – support - warrant HYPOTHESIS / THESIS Claim of fact – something is or was Claim of fact – something is or was Claim of value – something is better than… Claim of value – something is better than… Claim of policy – something should be done Claim of policy – something should be done GROUNDS – reasons- Evidence of support for your thesis - arguments Evidence of support for your thesis - arguments WARRANT - support Facts, interpretations of facts, evaluation of facts, and evaluation of interpretations (statement upon statement) Facts, interpretations of facts, evaluation of facts, and evaluation of interpretations (statement upon statement) BACKING – assumptions Expressed or unexpressed connection between evidence and its thesis or warrant and its grounds – it is reasons for its reasons. Expressed or unexpressed connection between evidence and its thesis or warrant and its grounds – it is reasons for its reasons.

Statement upon statement Find a statement (warrant / evidence) Find a statement (warrant / evidence) In your own words, what does that mean? In your own words, what does that mean? What is your opinion of that statement What is your opinion of that statement Find a source who supports or opposes your opinion Find a source who supports or opposes your opinion Write what you think about the source who supports or opposes your opinion Write what you think about the source who supports or opposes your opinion

Assignment Apply the “statement upon statement “ to two of your paragraphs and see how it develops. Apply the “statement upon statement “ to two of your paragraphs and see how it develops. Paraphrase / Summarize two passages that you plan to use in your paper. Paraphrase / Summarize two passages that you plan to use in your paper. Type the original passage, then type the paraphrase / summary. Type the original passage, then type the paraphrase / summary.

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