2 KEY CONCEPT Plant life began in the water and became adapted to land.
3 Land plants evolved from green algae. Plants and green algae have many common traits.both are photosynthetic eukaryotesboth have the same types of chlorophyllboth use starch as a storage productboth have cell walls with cellulose
4 Genetic analysis points to the common ancestor of all plants. extinct green algae speciesmodern species are still common in lakes and ponds
5 Important plant characteristics likely originated in algae multicellular body allowing for specialization of cells and tissues
6 True plants evolved through natural selection. Ancestral algae lived in areas of shallow water.Those that could survive longer dry periods were favored.First true plants probably grew at edges of water.True plants have embryos that develop while attached to female parent. (seeds!)
8 Plants have adaptations that allow them to live on land. Challenges of living on land have selected for certain plant adaptations.A cuticle allows plants to retain moisture.waxy, waterproof layerholds moisture in
9 Stomata are tiny holes in the cuticle. can open and closeallow air to move in and out
10 brings water and mineral nutrients up from roots A vascular system allows resources to move to different parts of the plant.specialized tissuesbrings water and mineral nutrients up from rootsdisperses sugars from the leavesallows plants to grow higher off the groundsugarswater and mineral nutrients
11 Lignin allows plants to grow upright. plant cellsligninhardens cell walls of some vascular tissuesprovides stiffness to stems
12 Pollen grains allow for reproduction without free-standing water. pollen grains contain a cell that divides to form spermpollen can be carried by wind or animals to female structures
13 A seed is a storage device for a plant embryo. seed coats protect embryos from drying wind and sunlightembryo develops when environment is favorable(moisture, temperature, etc just right)
14 21.1: Plant Cells & TissuesKEY CONCEPT Plants have specialized cells and tissue systems.
15 Plant organs are made of three tissue systems. 21.1: Plant Cells & TissuesPlant organs are made of three tissue systems.Dermal tissue covers the outside of a plant.protects the plantsecretes cuticle of leavesforms outer bark of trees
16 21.1: Plant Cells & TissuesGround tissue is found inside a plant.provides supportstores materials in roots and stems
17 Vascular tissue transports water, minerals and organic compounds. 21.1: Plant Cells & TissuesstemleafrootVascular tissue transports water, minerals and organic compounds.two networks of hollow tubesxylem transports water and minerals UP from the roots to the rest of the plantphloem transports photosynthetic products DOWN from the leaves to the stems & roots
18 21.2: The Vascular SystemKEY CONCEPT The vascular system allows for the transport of water, minerals, and sugars.
19 21.2: The Vascular SystemTranspiration is the loss of water vapor through leaves.water vapor exits leaf stomatahelps pull water to the top branches
20 21.3: Roots & StemsKEY CONCEPT Roots and stems form the support system of vascular plants.
21 Roots anchor plants and absorb mineral nutrients from soil. 21.3: Roots & StemsRoots anchor plants and absorb mineral nutrients from soil.Roots provide many functions.support the plantabsorb, transport, and store nutrients
22 Stems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage. 21.3: Roots & StemsStems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage.Stems have many functions.support leaves and flowershouse most of the vascular systemstore waterBaobab treesCactus
23 Stems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage. 21.3: Roots & StemsStems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage.Stems have many functions.support leaves and flowershouse most of the vascular systemstore watergrow underground for storageGinger rhizomesPotato tubers
24 Stems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage. 21.3: Roots & StemsStems support plants, transport materials, and provide storage.Stems have many functions.support leaves and flowershouse most of the vascular systemstore watergrow underground for storageform new plantsStrawberry stolons
25 21.3: Roots & StemsSome stems are herbaceous and conduct photosynthesis.
26 Some stems can be woody, and form protective bark.
27 21.4: LeavesKEY CONCEPT Leaves absorb light and carry out photosynthesis.
28 Guard cells surround each stoma. 21.4: LeavesGuard cells surround each stoma.Stomata open and close when guard cells change shape.When stomata are open, water evaporates and gas exchanges.Stomata close at night and when plant loses too much water.guard cellsstoma
29 Leaves may be simple, compound, or double compound. READ BUT DON’T COPYLeaves may be simple, compound, or double compound.Simple leafCompound leafDouble compound leaf
30 Leaf veins may be parallel or pinnate. 21.4: LeavesREAD BUT DON’T COPYLeaf veins may be parallel or pinnate.Pinnate veinsParallel veins
31 Leaf margins may be toothed, entire, or lobed. 21.4: LeavesREAD BUT DON’T COPYLeaf margins may be toothed, entire, or lobed.Toothed marginEntire marginLobed margin
32 21.4: LeavesREAD BUT DON’T COPYLeaves have many adaptations.for extreme temperatures, ex: pine needles
33 21.4: LeavesREAD BUT DON’T COPYLeaves have many adaptations.for extreme temperatures, ex: pine needlesfor water loss, ex: cactus spines
34 21.4: LeavesLeaves have many adaptations.for extreme temperatures, ex: pine needlesfor water loss, ex: cactus spinesfor aquatic environments, ex: water lilyfor getting food, ex: Venus’ flytrap
35 22.2: Reproduction in Plants KEY CONCEPT Reproduction of flowering plants takes place within flowers.
36 Flowers contain reproductive organs protected by specialized leaves. 22.2: Reproduction in PlantsFlowers contain reproductive organs protected by specialized leaves.Sepals and petals are modified leaves.Sepals are outermost layer that protects developing flowersepal
37 22.2: Reproduction in Plants A stamen is the male structure of the flower.stamenfilamentantherproduces pollen grains
38 22.2: Reproduction in Plants The innermost layer of a flower is the female part (carpel).carpelstylestigmaovaryovary produces female gametophyte (“egg”)
39 Flowering plants can be pollinated by wind or animals. 22.2: Reproduction in PlantsFlowering plants can be pollinated by wind or animals.Flowering plants pollinated when pollen grains land on stigma.Wind pollinated flowers have small flowers and large amounts of pollen.
40 22.2: Reproduction in Plants Pollination occurs when a pollen grain lands on a stigma.pollen tubespermstigmaone cell from pollen grain forms pollen tubeother cell forms two sperm that travel down tube
41 Flowering plants go through the process of double fertilization. endospermseed coatembryoone sperm fertilizes the eggother sperm unites with polar nuclei, forming endospermendosperm provides food supply for embryo
42 22.2: Reproduction in Plants Each ovule becomes a seed.The surrounding ovary grows into a fruit.