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Developmental Psychology

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology
Study of psychological changes that occur in human beings as they age Originally concerned with infants and children Also includes adolescence and more recently, Aging Studies change across a broad range of topics Motor skills Problem solving abilities Conceptual understanding Acquisition of language Moral understanding Identity formation

2 Developmental Psychology
Key questions Do children think in a different way to adults Or do they simply lack the experience of adults? Is development gradual - accumulation of knowledge Or does it take big jumps - step from one way of thinking to another? Are children born with innate knowledge Or do they figure things out through experience? Is development driven by the social context Or by something inside each child?

3 Developmental Psychology
A number of areas can be studied in Developmental Psychology Example: educational psychology, social psychology We focus on Cognitive Development (We are cognitivists) Focus on Piaget’s theory Why is it interesting for AI? As early as 1950 Turing proposed Build a child AI, rather than an adult Teach it what it needs to know Why build a child? Easier than adult because he knows less

4 Jean Piaget Born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896
Took an early interest in nature, especially the collecting of shells Became interested in Biological Adaptation …Led to interest in human intelligence and knowledge surely the highest form of biological adaptation

5 What Is It About? Genetic Epistemology
Genetic doesn’t mean Genetic Algorithm Genetic means studying the origin Where it comes from Epistemology means “theory of knowledge” So Genetic Epistemology is A theory of where knowledge comes from

6 Highest form of biological adaptation
What Is It About? Genetic Epistemology Highest form of biological adaptation

7 Piaget’s Observations
The first thing Piaget noticed: Children’s way of thinking is really different to adults I run through Piaget’s stages Observations of his own children

8 Q A Why does a helium balloon go up?
Because there’s a gas inside, when there’s a lot of gas it’s heavy, it’s very strong and then it flies.

9 Q Q Q Why does a large boat float?
Why does a small pebble sink to the bottom? But a small chip of wood floats… Q Why does a large piece of wood float?

10 Children’s way of thinking is really different to adults
Piaget’s Theory Piaget noticed: Children’s way of thinking is really different to adults But he also noticed something in common When they have a contradiction… Gradually they change their world model Come up with a new way to explain what they see They are creative in conjecturing new models Just like a scientist discovering laws of physics Key point: Children CONSTRUCT their own model of the world. Intelligence is about having a function that can Take on board new data Construct a theory of the world which fits the data I run through Piaget’s stages Observations of his own children

11 “Just as the main functions of the living being are identical in all organisms but correspond to organs which are very different in different groups, so also between the child and the adult a continuous creation of varied structures may be observed although the main functions of thought remain constant.” Piaget

12 Piaget’s Theory – How It Works
Cognitive structures Continuous creation Cognitive functions Organise + Adapt Invariant – nucleus in infant Constructivism “main functions of living being identical in all organisms but organs different also between child adult varied structures main functions of thought constant.”

13 Piaget’s Observations
The progress of development Variable ages + much overlap old habits reappear Show how little is known initially Gain insight into functions used I run through Piaget’s stages Observations of his own children

14 In the beginning: Reflex ( 0  1 months )
Sucking and grasping reflexes Respond to stimuli For play/practise Reflex preserves itself by repeating Schema: S-R-S Stimulus-Response-Stimulus Suck whenever something touches mouth Search - Inbuilt knowledge turn to left – expt on hearing – 2 minutes Accom to thumbsuck, to grab Sensations change in response to actions, but no idea of independent existence of world

15 In the beginning: Reflex ( 0  1 months )
Sucking and grasping reflexes Respond to stimuli For play/practise Reflex preserves itself by repeating Development Search improves Accommodates to new objects Discerns stimuli for special modes Sign recognition improves Suck whenever something touches mouth Search - Inbuilt knowledge turn to left – expt on hearing – 2 minutes Accom to thumbsuck, to grab Sensations change in response to actions, but no idea of independent existence of world

16 Circular Reactions ( 1  4 months )
Thumb sucking Grasping: 1. Reflex, with interest 2. Grab object and suck hand 3. Carry object to mouth 4. Grab object when in view Suddenly realise hand and vision are in the same world 5. Intentional motion of hand Throwing hands touches mouth 3. (but really same scheme as thumb sucking because sucks on hand or obj at start) when hand passes by chance in view holds it there now accoms hand to glance and studies objects 4. first time hand grasps while in view – surprise, does more grasping in view Suddenly realise hand and vision are in the same world Doesn’t seem to know innately that these are in the same world simultaneous view of hand and obj starts grab, not otherwise 5.what can be seen is grasped, what can be grasped is looked for This is Knowledge about the world Not maturational happens at quite different rates depending on what he did with them, or what they discovered by chance

17 Repeating Discoveries ( 4  8 months )
Repeat interesting spectacle Interrupted grabbing Reconstruct whole from visible part But does not retrieve if completely hidden Remove obstacles to perception Objects have no other side Image at disposal of action Bridge: actions dissociated from end result Shakes body to shake dolls; pulls string to shake rattle Doesn’t understand relation – magic is tried thinks his own actions are the only possible causes - egocentric But he does learn actions that do work and these are capturing knowledge about the world because he has an expectation that a certain action should produce a certain result Develops actions used to make interesting things last mouthing,looking,shaking,banging,grasping applied indiscrim. to any object New object not novel, just treated like any other object to apply actions to it’s intelligent because he rediscovers the movements needed/but it’s not intelligent because the solution is discovered before the desire to obtain it/real intelligence works the other way Interrupt grab: can play box;turn look; back to box->knowledge about the world -> objects are permanent global permanence tied to action, obj not permanent in a different context Reconstruct: recognises object by a bit of it raises cloth if beak sticks out cries if sees bit of bottle, stops if sees none well able to turn the bottle even if he sees a teeny bit of nipple (almost 180degree turn), but if he sees none he makes no attempt, even after extensive presentation of bottle in orientations he has understood nothing Remove: doesn’t get relation of screen to obj; get relation of screen to face shakes and duck falls down, but hid in fold; shakes and looks up top again Obj goes a to b; Expects it to reappear at a searches at exact point of departure, thinks obj is extension of movement, so if not found in exact extension of accomodation, no hope to find image at disposal of action, swings box;drops;looks in hand;swings empty hand;looks in hand but still progress from 1 where obj was not dist from results of reflex action stage3 still like stage1 because centred on child, next stage will be centred on objects Exploring objects

18 Intelligent Coordination ( 8  12 months )
Explore object properties Chain actions to achieve goal Intention; find means; apply actions Objects have other side Search for vanished objects A not B error Failure to modify action Bridge: dropping objects here he (accidentally at first) learns to push away a blocking object lifts a cushion to get thing – derived from obstacle removing unlike earlier stage where he just repeated pulling string to shake rattle for example, he now knows how means are connected to the goal and can exactly adjust means to goal Actions applied to new things even empty space understand the object interested in change in shape resulting from different head posns capable of turning bottle, also leans sideways to see teat Opinion that exists, generally that objects have other sides active search for vanished objects – opinion that it must be somewhere does a not b/often even if searches b if it’s too far in he searches a again he drops the swan while she’s watching, she watches it fall, sees it go out of view and then goes back and searches B Doesn’t get that it can’t be there if it went someplace else Behaviour Repeats again and again Toddler drops ball – when problem gets difficult more primitive behaviours reappear Same type of thing with people J downstairs+up in room godfather left in automobile+his room Like we can experience in a dream world when our conscious mind is absent Rules that say that a person can’t be in two places are not in force failures of stage 4: unable to modify action when outcome not achieved, instead starts afresh with new action/ can’t gradually approximate a demo scheme Bridge: dropping, experimenting with the trajectory

19 Experimentation ( 12  18 months )
Adjust actions using feedback Stick Support Really trying to understand the world Succeeds on A not B Fails covert displacements Limited construction of reality Adjust: Tries to pull wooden rooster toy through bars Learns the stick here with groping Learns support Understand – not just success - repetition, Experiment not just to repeat unexpected result but to create a new one no limit to probs that can be solved because will experiment with new schema for first time child initiates novelty (some kind of creativity here) Fails: put in open box, dump out under cloth doesn’t know gravity (OI270) puts cushion up, throws things down, doesn’t know what to expect when pushing thing off edge experimentation is limited to objects as they appear, they are not elaborated mentally mental constructions transforming the object as it appears to be into the object as it is presses ring to stick to put it on: optical contact, does not elaborate torus of ring, does not anticipate impenetrability of solid objects Knows they’re solid to his hand, but doesn’t know they’re solid to each other Construction of Reality – saw some at stage 4 with objects having other side Kids four wheel car is example of opinion/reality construction, made their own abstraction of what they think is important Mountain

20 Representation ( 18  24 months )
Planning becomes covert Combining action sequences Experimentation Succeeds in covert displacements Imitation to represent Difficulty  old magic forms reappear Planning : have built a world model Toy through bars Moves paint from door’s path Makes detour around sofa to get ball Succeeds: if very difficult, searches hard, assumes permanence of object where before he might give up, willing to accept it’s gone a lot of stage 6 stuff, looks intelligent, but he really knew all he needed already Jump to representation stage doesn’t mean anything new learnt, it’s a development in the way the knowledge learned is used Imitation:mouth Difficulty:use force to put ring in box, blink eyes to turn light

21 Q A Preoperational (2-7) Play and Imitation Fails seriation tasks
Does not know conservation Language - preconcepts Transduction instead of induction/deduction Q Piaget has written a lot about all that happens after infancy, but I’ll just skim through very quickly preconcepts:does not assign word to one class of objects but to a number of sim actions/experiences Language: fan is north wind Transduction Stone sinks because it’s strong and can get to the bottom Wood stays up because it’s strong so it can float No need for consistency Preconcepts – you think they’re the same but they’re not Why does a helium balloon go up? A Because there’s a gas inside, when there’s a lot of gas it’s heavy, it’s very strong and then it flies.

22 Concrete Operational (7-11) Formal Operational (11+)
Knows conservation Can manipulate concrete objects mentally Cannot manipulate abstract relations Edith fairer Lily; Edith darker Susan Cannot accept assumptions Can: seriation Cannot: edith fairer lily, edith darker susan Abstract: similar to earlier stage order concrete objects Could use the same mental machinery, many people represent the problem to themselves spatially Here moving around the relation as though it were a physical object able to accept assumption for sake of argument; so he’s now able to test a hypothesis without believing it hold in hypothetical mental space, aware it’s hypo This building of the mental space for hypotheses seems similar to the mental space used to plan building with concrete objects Set aside a space in mind for objects that are in a different layout to real world Formal Operational (11+) Can manipulate abstract relations Can entertain non-concrete hypotheses

23 General Themes Incremental construction Repeating work on a new plane
Implicit representation of concepts Only pay attention to what makes sense Development driven by conflict Implicit - Concepts are spread in many special case rules, like gravity, like vyg words, we think they’re the same, might be a long time before they’re untangled, must copy this, if we jump straight missing out, definitely how we solve a new problem, little special case hypotheses first More novelty as gets older – more patterns have been found relative to which things make sense Only pay attention to what makes sense, or what can be understood in terms of things that make sense As a relation among things that already make sense Paradoxical But still true in adult The more you know – the more things are interesting Learn chinese, every time see pay attention where before you would have ignored it Representation should be implicit in many special case hypotheses a constant theme in piaget’s work is repeating same work on new plane Special case stuff still continuing – Subbotsky 40% adults thought experimenter could bring about a material change in the object in the box with his mental powers

24 “Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself.”

25 Commonsense is Not Intelligence
Not sufficient Structure not function Not necessary Function can build structure I said that in Piaget’s Structure/Function division most AI work is on the structures and not much on the functions Commonsense ok for short term – engineer system to do a specific task Quickest way – but system will only do that specific task and never go beyond it Commonsense doesn’t find new patterns, it is collections of patterns already found Not necessary – build program to do task, if you go on to make it intelligent you must give capability to build own models And if that’s achieved then there was no point in all the commonsense For long term building artificial intelligence it’s a waste of time

26 Comparison with Darwin
Darwin looked at all the various forms of life and asked where did they come from? He saw a common mechanism… which could have given rise to all the varieties of life we see today. Many complex forms of life… could evolve out of very simple forms of life by a relatively simple mechanism Piaget looked at all the various forms of mental activity in humans of all ages saw a common mechanism which could have given rise to them all Complexities of adult human mind… could grow out simple forms in infant’s mind a relatively simple set of innate structures and functions. Darwin was concerned with the origin of species Piaget was concerned with the origin of mind

27 Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory
Some people contradict Piaget’s theory But beware! They lie! Considerable controversy in the field Results to corroborate Piaget’s theory And results to contradict his theory And results to contradict the contradictions And … Psychology has a lot of conflicting results A science in its infancy, just over 100 years old (Compare Physics)

28 Course Overview Looking at the Science
What is AI? What are the Major Challenges? What are the Main Techniques? Where are we failing, and why? Step back and look at the Science Step back and look at the History of AI What are the Major Schools of Thought? What of the Future? Looking at the Science Engineering vs. Science Introduction to Cognitive Science Cognitive Psychology 1 Cognitive Psychology 2 Cognitive Development Linguistics Neuroscience Philosophy What are we trying to do How do we do it A lot of people would start with the history – but it’s a bit meaningless at first

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