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Nationalism European Socieities Professor Claire Wallace.

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1 Nationalism European Socieities Professor Claire Wallace

2 Three Rises of Nationalism 1. End of Nineteenth Century from period of 1848 uprisings against the Habsburg Empire. Break up of the Habsburg Empire into many small nation states (principle of self-determination). Completed after end of First World War. Unification of Italy and Germany 2. End of British Empire after Second World War. Rise of new states in Africa and Asia in 1950s and 1960s 3. Break up of Soviet Empire. Re-emergence of older nations (Czech Republic, Poland, Georgia, Armenia, Baltic States) after 1988 and creation of new ones, accelerated after Soviet Union dismantled in 1991. Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, Kazakhstan, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia

3 Why at these times? Nationalism important for state building (but be aware of differences between nations and states and between citizenship and nationality) Lack of territorial and temporal fit between nations and states is major source of conflict Nation=social and cultural community Nationalism gives sense of unity/passion/identity Need for modern society – literacy, mass media, education system Construction by elites Nationalism basis for mass movements Creates insiders and outsiders Requires common language/history: vernacular mobilisation Creation of symbolic heritage – sites, heroes, myths, TV, costumes

4 Nationalism Debates Ernest Gellner: nationalism is a modern phenomenon. Based on idea that cultural/ethnic community and territory should be congruent in form of a state. Created by elites. Education system essential. Anthony Smith: nationalism based also on older cultural/ethnic groupings primordial Erich Hobsbawn/Benedict Anderson nation is imagined community (post-modernist) Marxist view: capitalism creates nationalism (wrong address theory)

5 Different kinds of nationalism Civic nationalism: associated with membership of a particular nation and community of citizens (from French Revolution). Ethnic nationalism: based on cultural/language group (often in opposition to civic nationalism). Ethnic communities become political communities. Often in revolt against alien rulers.

6 Four time zones of Europe From Ernest Gellner 1.Western Seaboard: strong dynastic states that unified national territory from middle ages onwards. The state existed before the nation. Nationalism was a present of history. Language and culture already present. 2.Central time zone: High cultures existed (Italian and German) but fragmented political states. Need to create states under a common cultural roof. Unified in 19 th C 3.Central-East time zone: mixture of many small ethnic and cultural groups. Ethnic groups mainly peasant cultures with no literate tradition. Nationalism began with ethnography (descriptive/normative) folklorists, school teachers, Awakeners at end of 19 th C and beginning of 20 th C. But difficult to build a territory. People had to be assimilated, expelled or killed. 4.Eastern Tsarist Empire: became Soviet Empire. Controlled territories forcefully and incorporated models of ethnic nations. But collapse meant rise of new nationalisms.


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