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www.ablongman.com/lefton9e Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 by Pearson Education. Reproduced by permission of the publisher. Further reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the publisher. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Memory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 What is Memory? The ability to recall past events, images, ideas, or previously learned information or skills The storage system that allows a person to retain and retrieve previously learned information
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 How Does the Memory Process Begin? The brain as Information Processor Long- Term Memory Three Processes Short- Term Memory 2. Storage3. Retrieval1. Encoding Information Sensory Memory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Encoding Organizing sensory information so it can be processed by the nervous system Visual Auditory Olfactory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Encoding 1.Attention is important –Divided attention interferes with encoding 2.Levels of Processing –Brain encodes information in different ways or on different levels –Deeper processing leads to deeper memory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Levels of Processing All approaches emphasize: –Importance of encoding –How information is encoded –That encoding is flexible –Effects of cues –Effects of preconceived biases
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Neuroscience and Encoding PET and MRI used to study neurobiological bases of memory Two important areas: a.Prefrontal cortex Left: Encoding new memories Right: Retrieving old memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Neuroscience and Encoding Two important areas: a.Prefrontal cortex b. Temporal Lobes temporal lobes active during encoding of associations
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Storage is: –The process of maintaining or keeping information readily available –The locations where information is held Memory stores Types of Memory Storage
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 A.Sensory Memory Types of Memory Storage –Performs initial encoding –Provides brief storage –Two types –Iconic Memory –Echoic Memory –Information must be transferred to short- term storage or it will be forgotten
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Types of Memory Storage B.Short-Term Storage –Holds information for processing –Fragile –Other terms: Short term Memory (emphasizes duration) Working Memory (emphasizes active nature)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Short-Term Storage 1.Early Research on Short-Term Memory a. Duration Information in short-term memory is available for 20–30 seconds at most.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Early Research on Short-Term Memory b.Quantity of information stored Memory Span 5–7 items (George Miller, 1956) But what is an item?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 What is an item? 1 4 9 1 6 2 5 3 6 4 9 6 4 8 1 1 0 0 Cat orange escalator watch bench The orange cat sat on the bench watching the escalator. Such groupings are called chunks
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Early Research on Short-Term Memory c. Rehearsal Process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about information to keep it active in memory Two types: Maintenance rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Short-Term Storage 2.The Emergence of Working Memory –Temporarily holds current or recent information for immediate or short-term use –Does not simply store information –Information is maintained for 20–30 seconds while active processing (e.g., rehearsal) takes place
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 C.Long-Term Memory Types of Memory Storage –Relatively permanent record of memory –Stored indefinitely –Capacity seems unlimited –Several different types
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Long Term Memory 1.Types: a. Types based on content i.Procedural memory ii.Declarative memory a)Episodic memory b) Semantic memory b. Types based on awareness i. Explicit memory ii. Implicit memory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Long Term Memory 2.Practice and Storage Two types: Massed practice Distributed practice Found distributed practice best Especially for perceptual-motor skills
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Neuroscience and Storage Consolidation Process of changing a temporary memory to a permanent memory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 The process by which stored information is recovered from memory –Depends on How retention is measured How information is encoded and stored Retrieval
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Retention: Measures of Retrieval Two types of retrieval task: 1. Recall Free recall Serial recall Paired associate 2. Recognition 3. Relearning
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Retrieval Retrieval Success and Failure: Sometimes information is in memory, but is inaccessible Why? One reason: poor retrieval cues
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 What Facilitates Retrieval? Retrieval 1. Primacy and Recency Effects a. Primacy Effect Better memory for items at the beginning of a list Better attention More time for rehearsal
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 b.Recency Effect Primacy and Recency Effects –Better memory for items at the end of a list –Items still in short-term storage
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Exception: Primacy and Recency Effects Restorff effect Occurs when recall is better for a distinctive item, even if it occurs in the middle of a list
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 2. Imagery What Facilitates Retrieval The creation of a mental picture of a sensory or perceptual experience Important memory aid Preserves perceptual information that might otherwise decay
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Flashbulb Memories Retrieval Vivid Remembered with confidence Detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 –One theory says this is a special type of memory for events that are highly emotional Makes them especially accurate Other psychologists disagree –Not a special mechanism –The emotional component makes these memories More distinctive (affecting encoding) More often rehearsed (enhancing retrieval) Flashbulb Memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Research shows that flashbulb memories –Are vivid –Are far from accurate –Can change over time Flashbulb Memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Early Studies –Found that college students made changes in stories when recalling them Leveling Sharpening Assimilation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Early Studies Contemporary explanations center on the reconstructive nature of memory –Memory formation often relies on a schema –We can not remember all the details of an event Schemas help fill in the missing details
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Forgetting Key Causes of Forgetting 1. Decay of Information The loss of information from memory due to disuse and the passage of time Disintegration of a physiological memory trace 2. Interference in Memory The suppression of one bit of information by another
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Interference in Memory Two types of interference a. Proactive interference Previously learned information interferes with the ability to learn new information b. Retroactive interference Newly learned information interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Key Causes of Forgetting 3. Interference with Attention –Likely causes of absentmindedness Encoding failure –Divided attention Problem for both encoding and retrieval More of a problem during encoding
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Interference with Attention Stroop Effect YELLOW RED BLUE BLACK GREEN RED BLUE YELLOW RED BLUE BLACK GREEN RED BLUE –Read the INK COLOR of the words below as quickly as you can
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Forgetting Special Types of Forgetting 1. Eyewitness Testimony Both jurors and judges place high confidence in eyewitnesses –However, research shows eyewitnesses are often inaccurate –Loftus’ (1975, 1979) research »Demonstrated memory distortion may be caused by the wording of a question
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Eyewitness Testimony Demonstrates the misinformation effect High motivation to remember an event can actually distort it Accuracy and confidence are uncorrelated –Speed of identification is a better indicator of accuracy than confidence
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Special Types of Forgetting 2. Motivated Forgetting –Occurs when frightening, traumatic events are forgotten because people want to forget them –First suggested by Freud (1933) Believed such memory loss occurred through repression –Underlies the debate on recovered memory
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