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Independence Movements – World Today.  Negritude Movement – a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values  Right to self-determination.

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Presentation on theme: "Independence Movements – World Today.  Negritude Movement – a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values  Right to self-determination."— Presentation transcript:

1 Independence Movements – World Today

2  Negritude Movement – a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and values  Right to self-determination (U.N. charter)  Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War II  Resentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation

3  Bloody – British settlers owned prime farmland in the highlands of Kenya and resisted independence for Kenya  Leader – Jomo Kenyatta

4  West Africa – peaceful transition  Originally called Gold Coast under the British

5  War for independence from France

6  Struggle against apartheid  Led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of South Africa

7  Both Palestinians and Israelis want the same land  Creation of Israel in 1948 led to many conflicts between Israel and countries in the Middle East (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, etc…)  1993 – creation of a Palestinian state (Gaza Strip and West Bank)

8  Golda Meir- Prime Minister of Israel who helped defeat Arab nations in the Yom Kippur War and sought a close relationship with the U.S.

9  Protestants vs. Catholics  IRA (Irish Republican Army) – wants a united Ireland (Northern Ireland – part of Great Britain)  Today – not an issue

10  1990s – Slovenia and Croatia separate from Yugoslavia  Serbian-led Yugoslav army invaded both Croatia and Slovenia – became free from Serbian rule  February 1992 – Bosnia Herzegovina declared independence  April 1992 – Serbia and Montenegro formed a new Yugoslavia  While Bosnian Muslims and Croats supported independence, Bosnian Serbs did not

11  Supported by Serbia, Bosnian Serbs launched a brutal war in 1992 (ethnically cleanse Bosnia Herzegovina of all Muslims)

12  Leader – Gandhi  Role of civil disobedience and passive resistance (boycotts and Salt March)  Hindu-Muslim conflict  1947 partition – India (Hindus) and Pakistan (Muslims)

13  Modern India a parliamentary democracy with a strong economy  Ethnic and religious tensions face the developing the nation.

14  Was created based on a religious issue and divided into two territories (East and West)  Conflict between East and West (linguistic, religious, and regional issues)

15  1971 – East Pakistan declared its independence  East Pakistan became Bangladesh

16  Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war  Chiang Kai-shek – nationalist China (Taiwan)  Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) – Communist China (mainland China)  Continuing conflict

17  North America and Europe  Economic stability - prosperous  High literacy rates (most people can read and write)  Health care (most people have access to health care)  Low birth rate/low infant mortality rate  Population growth - slow

18  Africa and Asia  Economic Conditions – Poverty  Low literacy rate  Health care (diseases)  High birth rate/high infant mortality rate  Growing population – rapid

19  Widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communications  Genetic engineering and bioethics

20  Economic development (pollution)  Rapid population growth (strain on natural resources)

21  Pollution  Loss of habitat (places to live)  Global climate change

22  Poverty  Poor health  Illiteracy  Famine  Migration

23  Role of rapid transportation, communication, and computer networks  Rise and influence of multinational corporations  Changing role of international boundaries  Regional integration (European Union – tariff-free trade among European nations)

24  Trade Agreements – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – tariff-free trade between U.S., Canada, and Mexico and World Trade Organization (WTO) – monitors trade among nations  International Organizations – United Nations + International Monetary Fund (IMF) – offers emergency funds to countries in crisis

25  Refugees as an issue in international conflicts (ex. Palestinian-Israeli conflict forced a lot of Palestinians into Jordan) – people who are forced to leave their homelands because of war, poverty, political problems, and environmental disasters

26  People who leave their homeland to work elsewhere (Ex. Central and South Americans coming to the United States) – guest workers

27 Indira Gandhi  First female Prime Minister of India  established a close relationship with the USSR during the Cold War and built a nuclear program

28 Margret Thatcher  First female British prime minister  Less government regulation of economy  Close relationship with the US on foreign policy

29 Mikhail Gorbachev  Allowed people to criticize the government ( glasnost )  Allowed private ownership of small business ( perestroika )  Last president of the Soviet Union

30 Deng Xiaoping  Became leader of China after Mao’s death  Reformed economy to a market economy which allowed for rapid growth  Continued Communist rule of China

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