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Do handheld devices facilitate face-to-face collaboration

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1 Do handheld devices facilitate face-to-face collaboration
Do handheld devices facilitate face-to-face collaboration? Handheld devices with large shared display groupware to facilitate group interactions C.-C. Liu* & L.-C. Kao†

2 Summary Aim: Face-to-face collaboration through handheld devices
Procedure Tablet-PC-only Tablet-PC with network file sharing Tablet-PC with shared display Thinking-Pairing-Sharing (TPS) learning activity

3 One-to-one collaborative learning scenario using a shared display
Workspaces with shared displays

4 Relation with Mobile Learning Framework
Interaction and collaboration Personal device Share documents and display screens Use proper statistical tools on the Internet

5 Which handheld devices help collaboration and in what ways?
Using Tablet PC with shared display: Promote shared understanding and increase awareness Share documents and answers

6 Advantages of Handheld Devices
Tablet PCs with network file sharing view answers Using Tablet PC with shared display: Participation Discussion Interaction Easily indicate the visual focus Cooperate Edit a group answer Increase of awareness

7 Disadvantages of Handheld Devices
Tablet-PCs-only Not enough participation No interaction and communication Difficulty in exchanging information Unaware of visual focus Tablet PCs with network file sharing Students tended to focus only on their own Tablet PCs No interaction No communication Students tended to select one individual's answer as the group answer

8 Additional comments Reliable tests Shared space
Limited computational power Questionnaire Statistical tests

9 Conclusion Single large display systems should be deployed in public areas where students come together to mix, socialize and collaborate throughout the day. (Brignull et al, 2004) Similarly, the deployment of a shared-display system in communal space such as meeting rooms or libraries can also enrich student interaction in after class and informal discussion settings

10 E.M. Morken, M. Divitini, O.K Haugalokkent
Enriching spaces in practice-based education to support collaboration while mobile: the case of teacher education E.M. Morken, M. Divitini, O.K Haugalokkent

11 Summary Purposes: - Investigation of the usage of shared display systems to promote cooperation in practice-based education. - Discussion for the importance of common spaces and the role of bulletin boards. - Definition of high-level requirements for a share display system to support practice-based education. Procedure Illustration of the main concepts with a demonstrator and some fictional scenarios of usage. The demonstrator has been evaluated by three persons in order to collect feedback on the suitability of the shared display system.

12 Information hanging on a glass wall
in the teachers’ room The PPE-board

13 Contribution to the mobile learning framework
Research in the field of mobile learning and ubiquitous computing focuses on the development of spaces that are inhabited by users and the support that can be provided by enriching these spaces. - By setting shared display systems in common areas, people have easy access to information, announcements, schedules, pictures etc. while they are moving in that space. - Moreover, the shared display system includes the capability both receiving and posting information while mobile.

14 Advantages of shared display systems
Provide unlimited space Visibility of the information Support mobility and remote access Facilitate socialization Support access to external information sources Support coordination Support communication with people Support of sharing of experiences Support for collecting, distributing and sharing information Awareness support through commenting

15 Problems/issues Consideration of different types of tools.
Need for remote communication. It should serve as a portal instead of a stand-alone application. Easy overview of what is new or relevant in a certain situation. Consideration of contextualized presentation of the information. Privacy

16 Additional comments The evaluation was carried out only by three people. The evaluation does not refer at all on usability issues. The evaluation was based on semi-structured interviews that lasted about 1 hour. Their evaluation was based only on a short exposure and trial of the system on a laptop before the interview.

17 Conclusion The article is based on a relatively new and unexplored field of mobile learning. Apart from any methodology issues the overall idea of using a shared display system to promote remote communication and sharing of experiences among students seems to be advantageous. Some improvements could be done.

18 S. Fallahkhair, L. Pemberton & R. Griffiths
Development of a Cross-Platform Ubiquitous Language Learning Service via Mobile Phone and Interactive Television S. Fallahkhair, L. Pemberton & R. Griffiths

19 Summary of the Article TAMALLE (Television and Mobile phone Assisted Language Learning Environment) TAMALLE is basically designed for second language learners help them to improve their language skills in a ubiquitous informal environment. TAMALLE has stages of the invention of an interactive TV combined with mobile phone. Different experiment was performed on people from different nations using iTV with the prototype of TAMALLE the result showed a positive impact of TAMALLE on the people.

20 An Early Example of Supporting for Second Language Learners
Mobile devices Mobile devices enhance learning experiences by enabling communications, learning on-the move and use on an ‘anytime and anywhere’ basis. Second Language learners currently are often found with a pocket dictionary or a personal vocabulary book. Non-interactive Television It clearly affords watching, reading and listening, making it an excellent medium for learners to practice comprehension skills and also to acquire background cultural knowledge. Comprehension of spoken material is strongly supported.

21 A Prototype of TAMALLE TAMALLE (television and mobile phone assisted language learning environment) main menu.

22 A Prototype of TAMALLE Supporting comprehension of difficult language item across iTV and mobile phones.

23 The Relation to the Framework of Mobile Learning with TAMALLE
The idea of this design based on other researches which approve two aspects; the effectiveness of conventional TV in second language learning the influence of the combination of media and audio. The way of learning those languages was iTV or Mobile phone; using a textual image on the left of the screen of the iTV video on the right of the screen of the iTV textual message type of thing for mobile using client server architecture. The system was based on cross platform architecture using multi tier client/server architecture for both Bluetooth and JAVA Enterprise Development Solution. So, the result of the focus group and language learning theories integrated in a discussion of the learning affordances of iTV and mobile phone technologies and shaped a framework for this design.

24 What is good about it The prototype had good results (Usability, Usefulness, Desirability, Overall Acceptance) Provide immediate access to dictionary Learn new language items (Vocabulary, Expressions and slang) Learn while doing ordinary and enjoyable activities Learners say: Useful helpful motivating easy to use Personal Consistent engaging familiar Learn on-the-move, 'you can learn wherever you are' Support the immersion of culture of drama to assist learning

25 What issues are addressed
Can Distract from ordinary TV watching with too much data on screen Difficulties to read the text on screen while viewing Size of text on Screen can be an issue if too small It is a difficult prototype to enable equal access on a mobile phone (small screen) and TV (large screen). Costs of using the services Design had to be Simple to work on different models of mobiles Support materials required and research over a long Period of time Some students who only have a mobile device. The TAMALLE prototype was restricted to iTV's and mobile phones (Should be applied to PDA's, PC, laptops etc. )

26 Conclusion The evaluation results which used different research methods approved the positive effect of this invention. It seems that mobile phone and iTV are very beneficial in second language learning particularly for advanced learners. The mobile device and iTV will purely be for revision rather than the main learning method. Ideally the mobile phone and iTV will be used in conjunction with each other to get maximum benefit.

27 Affordances of mobile technologies for experiential learning: the interplay of technology and pedagogical practices C.-H. Lai, J.-C. Yang, F.-C. Chen, C.-W. Ho & T.-W. Chan

28 Summary Experiential learning emphasises learning for the individual and it utilises experience in a given context to support knowledge acquisition and creation. The research attempts to investigate how mobile technologies (PDAs) facilitate experiential learning. The study is conducted with primary students on a field-trip of exploring plants in school garden so as to compare their knowledge retention and creation.

29 Mobile technology system
Learning flow 1. Photo taking 2. Sensory experience 3. Further observation 4. Comparison 5. Question proposing 6. Final report Mobile technology system teachers: prompts and material designing, learning status monitoring students: seek answers and respond to the quizzes, share with others with PDAs Findings Students with PDAs were more motivated and encouraged to engage with the wildlife Students with PDAs retained and created more knowledge than who without PDAs

30 Contribution to the mobile learning framework
Make outdoor learning much more convenient and accessible Provide real-time information for learners anytime, anywhere Provide functionalities for note-taking, such as photo-taking, sound recording and writing Encourage people to learn by exploring the tangible contexts and proposing questions actively Enable people to share ideas and discuss with others during the learning process

31 Benefits of PDAs afford Experiential learning
Photo taking makes learning efficiently – improve retention save time – recording quickly produce useful results easy to save and manage drawing pictures is difficult Sound recording aids proposing more questions – increase knowledge creation Provide real-time material and prompts Increase motivation and learning achievement Gain accurate knowledge actively Save time by note-taking with PDAs

32 Considerations / issues
Big issue – How interplay between technologies and pedagogical practice can afford better experiential learning - students lost interesting in sensory experience after taking photos - technologies are not substitute of some learning experience - sound recording does not work well enough technical: noisy surroundings – improve recording technology pedagogical: has great difficulty to generate questions Motivation - can they motivate people engaged in learning for a long period of time? - PDAs make students better or students motivate actions by using PDAs? Ethic issue – Who should provide the PDAs? Schools or individual contribute?

33 Conclusion Mobile technologies facilitate field-trip and outdoor learning Make learning much more accessible, flexible, convenient, immediate and efficient Build a bridge between experiential learning and traditional learning Technologies cannot solely enhance learning but the interplay between technologies and pedagogical practices enables to afford optimal learning

34 Innovative socio-technical environments in support of distributed intelligence and lifelong learning
G. Fischer, S. Konomi

35 Summary Socio-technical environments try to relate tools and systems with the characteristics and abilities of human cognition, supporting the human mind. Lifelong learning (self-directed, informal learning) supported by WMT Context awareness considered

36 Summary (continue) Going small: personalized, portable devices and wireless communication – information anywhere at any time. - “Mobility-For-All” (2005): “universe of one”-adaptable to each person’s abilities. PDAs, cellular phones and GPSs Going large: collaboration and communication through large interactive tables and vertical displays. - “Environment and Discovery Collaboratory” (2001) (EDC): face-to-face collaboration in complex activities, distance in communication and collaboration - Caretta (2004): information sharing through group discussions Going everywhere: computation is distributed in the physical environment. RFID transponders into everyday objects providing information about them. - “QueryLens” (2002) accumulates queries connected to physical objects giving the ability to the users to share these queries and modify them

37 Contribution to mobile learning framework
Mobility-For-All: small devices can be worn or carried providing people the ability of learning information and communicating as they move around in the world. “Right” information at the “right” time. i.e. navigation systems EDC: tool-rich environments can be used to eliminate the distance and achieve learning not only by face-to-face collaboration, but also learning by distance. Sharing information achieved through interactive displays and through the web. QueryLens: “Right” information in the “right” physical objects. People obtain the information they want about everyday objects. i.e. music CD, learn by the system further information

38 Advantages of distributed intelligent technologies
Lifelong learning better than school-based learning Mobility facilitates situated learning “Universe of one” approach Information at any time and any place Mobility-For-All facilitates transportation system Wireless networks provide communication and collaboration across physical boundaries Embedded devices aid people to act and learn about objects in their environment at any time “Right” information in the “right” physical objects

39 Problems/ issues Tool-rich environment required, which may not be available or cost-effective Deskilling – learned helplessness symptoms Lack of reliable usability tests or experiments of the systems described Doubts for Mobility-For-All “universe of one” Doubts for EDC effectiveness and applicability in mobile learning process QueryLens – ethical issues: probable bombarding of information, privacy issues, isolation

40 Problems/ issues “Power of the collective human mind”- not quantifiable

41 Conclusions WMT support lifelong learning and socio-technical environments and provide communication and collaboration in learning, across physical boundaries. Critical points to be considered: context awareness and understanding of human abilities. Challenge of future: say the “right” thing at the “right” time in the “right” way to the “right” person.

42 Comparison of the papers
SIMILARITIES Collaboration Paper 1- Handheld devices Paper 2- Shared display systems Paper 5- Virtual displays (EDC) Mobility Paper 1- Handheld devices (PDAs, tablet PCs) Paper 2 -Shared display systems Paper 3 - Mobile phones Paper 4- PDAs Paper 5- Mobile phones, PDAs, GPS, RFID

43 Interaction Paper 1- Shared displays Paper 2- Shared display systems (touch screen) Paper 3- Interactive television Paper 4- PDAs Paper 5- PDAs, Interactive tables, GPS

44 (Shared Display systems and TAMALLE)
Innovation The most innovative technologies addressed in the papers were paper 2 and paper 3, which are based on relatively new fields in mobile learning, describing technologies which are not fully explored yet. (Shared Display systems and TAMALLE)

45 General conclusion The papers address different aspects of the transformation of education for a mobile society (Sharples, 2007) As stated in the papers mobile technologies should be developed for educational purposes always considering learners’ abilities and needs.

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