Presentation on theme: "I. TROUBLE ON THE FRONTIER A.Colonists’ Relations with American Indians 1.1621 – Chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag Indians made a peace agreement with the."— Presentation transcript:
I. TROUBLE ON THE FRONTIER A.Colonists’ Relations with American Indians 1.1621 – Chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag Indians made a peace agreement with the Pilgrims. 2.1670s Massasoit’s son, Metacomet begins to distrust and dislike the English colonists.
3.English settlers call Metacomet – King Philip – because he compares himself to Charles II. 4.1675 – tensions erupt into King Philip’s War. Colonial militia fight American Indian warriors. Both sides attack each other’s settlements. Men, women, and children are killed. Fighting ends in 1676 with about 600 colonists and 3,000 Indians killed including Metacomet.
5.Some Indians aided the colonists – this alliance was based on trade. Indians wanted tools, weapons, and other goods. Colonists wanted furs. Each depended on the other. 6.French traded with the Algonquian and Huron.
7.English traded with the Iroquois League. Powerful group that united six different tribes. 8.Many American Indians trusted the French more than the English. French settlements were smaller. English colonies were rapidly growing.
B. CONFLICTS WITH FRANCE 1.In the late 1600s, France and England wanted control over both Europe and America. This conflict caused a series of wars. King William’s War (1689-1697) – did not change colonial boundaries in North America.
Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) – England fought both France and Spain. a.In the colonies, Indians aided both French and English. b.English captured French Canada’s Port Royal. c.English burned Spanish settlement of St. Augustine in Florida. d.Treaty gave Great Britain Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia. King George’s War (1740s) - had little effect on the colonies.
2.Great Britain and France competed for the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes. British wanted to settle the region. French wanted to protect their fur trade with the American Indians. 3.The French built three forts in the Ohio Valley on land claimed by Virginia. British felt the French were keeping them from expanding west. 1753 – Virginia demanded that France give up its forts. France refused and war seemed likely.
4.British colonists were poorly organized and war with the French would be dangerous. 1754 – seven colonies sent delegates to Albany, NY. Colonial leaders wanted a treaty with the Iroquois League. Talked about the colonies working together. Albany Plan of Union written in part by Ben Franklin called for all the colonies except Georgia to unite. Plan rejected by colonies and Parliament.
C. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 1.During the Albany Conference the British started a fort along the Ohio River. The French drove them off and built Fort Duquesne on the site. 2.George Washington was sent with more soldiers and they built a small fort named Fort Necessity. The French attacked. Many casualties – killed, injured, or captured soldiers. Washington was forced to surrender.
3.Washington’s defeat in 1754 was the start of the French and Indian War between Britain and France. 1756 – fighting also began in Europe where it was called the Seven Years War. 4.King George II sent General Edward Braddock to command the British forces in America. He knew little about frontier fighting which led to disaster when he decided to attack Fort Duquesne (1755). Braddock marched straight into an ambush.
“The Enemy kept behind Trees, and cut down our Troops.” The British were forced to retreat with almost 500 casualties including Braddock. The French and American Indians lost 50. 5. Battle of Quebec (1759) – turning point in the war when British General James Wolfe captured Quebec (capital of New France).
British General Wolfe killed in battle. French General Montcalm killed in battle. 6. War continues until 1763 – Britain wins most of the important battles.
D. TREATY OF PARIS 1763 – officially ends the war 1.Britain and France redrew the political map of North America. Britain gained Canada and all of the French lands east of the Mississippi River (except the city of New Orleans). Britain received Florida from Spain (because Spain was allied with France.) In an earlier treaty, Spain received Louisiana – French land west of the Mississippi River. Britain now had almost all land east of the Mississippi River. Spain was the only other nation with claims in North America.