Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Civil War and Reconstruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6: Civil War and Reconstruction Core Lesson 1:A Nation at War
2 North Against South The Union and Confederacy had different strengths. Border statesA slave state that stayed in the UnionMissouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware
3 North Against South Northern advantages Population Factories North: 22 millionSouth: 9 million (1/3 were slaves = not soldiers)FactoriesMake supplies and weaponsMore Railroad TransportationMove soldiers and supplies
4 North Against South Southern advantages Land knowledge Most fighting occurred in SouthMilitary leadersGeneral Robert E. LeeFought in Mexican War
5 North Against South Plans for War Union’s strategy Navy block southern seaports and control Mississippi RiverAttack in East and West at same timeConfederacy’s strategyFight off Union until they could survive as a separate nationHoped for help from Britain and France b/c of need for cotton
6 North Against South The War in the East First Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861Union going to capture Confederate capital of Richmond, VirginiaUnion and Confederacy fought at stream near ManassasUnion retreated in panicWorse than expectedPeople realized it would not be a short war
7 Review: What was the Confederacy’s plan for winning the war? North Against SouthReview: What was the Confederacy’s plan for winning the war?
8 The War’s LeadersMilitary and political leaders played important roles during the war.1862 – Union tried to capture Richmond, VI twice but was defeated by Lee and his armyBattle of AntietamLee went to invade North but stopped by Union armyDeadliest day of the war2 armies suffered at least 23,000 casualtiesSoldiers who are killed or woundedLee lost so many he returned to Virginia
9 The War’s Leaders The War in the West General Ulysses S. Grant led Union armyCaptured several Confederate fortsWon the Battle of ShilohUnion navy attacked New OrleansBy 1863, only major Confederate town on Mississippi R. was Vicksburg, MIConfederate soldiers could shoot at ships from cliffsUnion needed to capture in order to control Mississippi R.
10 The Governments Respond Jefferson Davis faced problemsUnion blockade = not enough food, weapons, or money to fightNot enough people wanted to fightBegan a draftGovernment selection of people to serve in the militaryConfederate states often ignored Davis
11 The Governments Respond Abraham Lincoln faced problemsHard to get support for warStarted a draftRich could pay to get out of draftUpset people who could not afford to pay and had to fightIn NYC a riot (violent protest) lasted for days which thousands of soldiers had to stop
12 The Governments Respond Review: Why did people in the North oppose the draft?
13 Turning PointsEvents in 1863 helped the Union become stronger in the Civil War.Lincoln’s plan changesBegan war not planning to free slavesHoped to unite people in Union by ending slaveryEmancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1, 1863)Freeing of enslaved peopleFreed slaves in Confederacy but not border statesChanged what the war was about (no longer to save the Union, but to end slavery)
14 Turning Points Vicksburg and Gettysburg Battle of Vicksburg (in West) General Grant’s army surrounded VicksburgFired cannons into town for 6 weeksJuly 4, 1863 Vicksburg surrenderedUnion controlled Mississippi R. and cut off TX and Arkansas from the rest of the South
15 Turning Points Vicksburg and Gettysburg Battle of Gettysburg (in East) Lee invaded Union into PennsylvaniaJuly 1, 1863 battle begins near GettysburgThird day fighting14,000 confederate soldiers came across open field toward UnionUnion attacked with rifle and cannon fire = injured/killed ½ Confederate soldiers = retreatUnion victory
16 Turning Points Vicksburg and Gettysburg July 1863 = turning point of warPresident Lincoln gave short speech = Gettysburg AddressDeclared Union was fighting to make sure American democracy would survive
17 Review: Why was the victory at Vicksburg important to the Union? Turning PointsReview: Why was the victory at Vicksburg important to the Union?
18 Why It Matters…With the Emancipation Proclamation, the Civil War became a fight to end slavery in the Confederate States.