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Chapter 6: Civil War and Reconstruction

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1 Chapter 6: Civil War and Reconstruction
Core Lesson 1: A Nation at War

2 North Against South The Union and Confederacy had different strengths.
Border states A slave state that stayed in the Union Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware

3 North Against South Northern advantages Population Factories
North: 22 million South: 9 million (1/3 were slaves = not soldiers) Factories Make supplies and weapons More Railroad Transportation Move soldiers and supplies

4 North Against South Southern advantages Land knowledge
Most fighting occurred in South Military leaders General Robert E. Lee Fought in Mexican War

5 North Against South Plans for War Union’s strategy
Navy block southern seaports and control Mississippi River Attack in East and West at same time Confederacy’s strategy Fight off Union until they could survive as a separate nation Hoped for help from Britain and France b/c of need for cotton

6 North Against South The War in the East First Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861 Union going to capture Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia Union and Confederacy fought at stream near Manassas Union retreated in panic Worse than expected People realized it would not be a short war

7 Review: What was the Confederacy’s plan for winning the war?
North Against South Review: What was the Confederacy’s plan for winning the war?

8 The War’s Leaders Military and political leaders played important roles during the war. 1862 – Union tried to capture Richmond, VI twice but was defeated by Lee and his army Battle of Antietam Lee went to invade North but stopped by Union army Deadliest day of the war 2 armies suffered at least 23,000 casualties Soldiers who are killed or wounded Lee lost so many he returned to Virginia

9 The War’s Leaders The War in the West
General Ulysses S. Grant led Union army Captured several Confederate forts Won the Battle of Shiloh Union navy attacked New Orleans By 1863, only major Confederate town on Mississippi R. was Vicksburg, MI Confederate soldiers could shoot at ships from cliffs Union needed to capture in order to control Mississippi R.

10 The Governments Respond
Jefferson Davis faced problems Union blockade = not enough food, weapons, or money to fight Not enough people wanted to fight Began a draft Government selection of people to serve in the military Confederate states often ignored Davis

11 The Governments Respond
Abraham Lincoln faced problems Hard to get support for war Started a draft Rich could pay to get out of draft Upset people who could not afford to pay and had to fight In NYC a riot (violent protest) lasted for days which thousands of soldiers had to stop

12 The Governments Respond
Review: Why did people in the North oppose the draft?

13 Turning Points Events in 1863 helped the Union become stronger in the Civil War. Lincoln’s plan changes Began war not planning to free slaves Hoped to unite people in Union by ending slavery Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1, 1863) Freeing of enslaved people Freed slaves in Confederacy but not border states Changed what the war was about (no longer to save the Union, but to end slavery)

14 Turning Points Vicksburg and Gettysburg Battle of Vicksburg (in West)
General Grant’s army surrounded Vicksburg Fired cannons into town for 6 weeks July 4, 1863 Vicksburg surrendered Union controlled Mississippi R. and cut off TX and Arkansas from the rest of the South

15 Turning Points Vicksburg and Gettysburg Battle of Gettysburg (in East)
Lee invaded Union into Pennsylvania July 1, 1863 battle begins near Gettysburg Third day fighting 14,000 confederate soldiers came across open field toward Union Union attacked with rifle and cannon fire = injured/killed ½ Confederate soldiers = retreat Union victory

16 Turning Points Vicksburg and Gettysburg
July 1863 = turning point of war President Lincoln gave short speech = Gettysburg Address Declared Union was fighting to make sure American democracy would survive

17 Review: Why was the victory at Vicksburg important to the Union?
Turning Points Review: Why was the victory at Vicksburg important to the Union?

18 Why It Matters… With the Emancipation Proclamation, the Civil War became a fight to end slavery in the Confederate States.

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