Warm- Up After reading the passage on the Pierce Butler slave auction, answer these questions: 1.Where was the largest slave auction in American History? 2.How did Pierce Butler handle the sale of family members? 3.What was the purpose of Thomson’s article, “What Became of Slaves on a Georgia Plantation?” 4.Why was this event called the “weeping time?”
Dred Scott Case The case was tried in 1857. Dred Scott had been a slave in Missouri, and had traveled with his master into free territory. His owner later traveled back to Missouri where he died. Dred Scott then sued for his freedom. The Supreme Court ruled that Scott could not sue because he was not a citizen. This angered many including abolitionists and those in favor of popular sovereignty because it basically stated that slaveholders could keep their slaves in any state.
New Political Parties As tensions heighten, in 1854 Northern Democrats (who opposed slavery) and Free Soilers ( a party opposing slavery in the new territories) unite They call their new party the Republican Party Abraham Lincoln (from Illinois) will emerge as the party’s leader
1860: Abraham Lincoln is elected In the 1860 Presidential election, Abraham Lincoln was considered a"dark horse" candidate. Lincoln ran on the Republican platform of opposition to the extension of slavery in the western territories. He was elected with only 40% of the popular vote. Several Southern states declared they would secede from the Union if Abraham Lincoln became President.
Secession Secession: The act of separating from the Union. South Carolina ceded December 20, 1860 By February 1, 1861 seven states had seceded from the United States. (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas) These seven states formed the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as their President.
Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC Fort Sumter, a Union fort in Charleston Harbor, is surrounded after South Carolina secedes in December 1860 The Union refused to surrender the fort and Jefferson Davis orders Southern troops to bombard the fort After 33 hours, Union soldiers surrendered, starting the Civil War
Americans Expect a Short War Both the North and South thought they were “right” in the war. 2 sides were unevenly matched – how?? Union: –More fighting power, more factories, greater food production, more extensive RR system Confederacy: –Had a lot of money (off of cotton), good military leadership, motivated soldiers
Jefferson Davis Was the first and only President of the Confederate States of America (1861-1865) Appointed Robert E. Lee commander of Army of Northern Virginia in 1862 Believed the Confederacy should stay on the defense
Robert E. Lee (Confederacy-South) -Resigned from the US Army to fight for the Confederacy: was against slavery but didn’t want to fight against the South -Named commander of the Army of Northern Virginia in 1862 -Lee believed that the Confederacy should use their military expertise on go on the offensive -Led the Confederacy to many victories; however, his offensive attempts to invade the North failed (Battle of Antietam and Battle of Gettysburg)
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederacy-South) -Played a major role in defeating the Union Army at the first major battle of the war (Bull Run-1861), the loss at Bull Run made the Union realize that it would be a prolonged war -Fought with Lee at Antietam -Helped defeat the Union Army at Fredericksburg (1862) and Chancellorsville (1863) -Was accidently shot at night by his own men at Chancellorsville and died 8 days later
Ulysses Grant (Union-North) Had early success fighting in the west (TN, LA, MS) Captured Vicksburg, MS giving the Union control of the Mississippi River Lincoln promoted him to commander of the entire Union Army in 1864 Fights Lee in a series of battles ending in Lee’s surrender at Appomattox in 1865
William Sherman (Union-North) Fought with Grant at Vicksburg Named Union Commander of the West (1864) Attacked and destroyed the city of Atlanta, a major southern railroad center, in the fall of 1864 (“Sherman’s March”)
Exit! 1.What happened as a result of the Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860? 2.Why were shots fired at Fort Sumter?