# 1 Chapter 12: Population Challenges. 2 1. Introduction Canada is the second largest country in the world by size (9,979,600 km²) Population estimated.

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1 Chapter 12: Population Challenges

2 1. Introduction Canada is the second largest country in the world by size (9,979,600 km²) Population estimated at 32,805,041 in 2005 Three out of every four Canadians live in cities and towns (75%)

3 2. Terms Demography – the study of population, its numbers, distribution, trends and issues Migration – the movement of people from one place to another

4 3. Population Growth Is the result of two factors: natural increase and immigration Natural Increase – occurs when the birth rate is greater than the death rate

5 Birth Rate – Is the number of births per 1000 population. It is calculated by dividing the total number of births in one year by the total population, then multiplying the result by 1000. Death Rate – Is the number of deaths per 1000 population. It is calculated the same way as using the number of deaths.

6 Birth and Death Rate

7 Baby Boom – was a period from 1946-1964 when there was a sharp increase in the number of births

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9 4. Fertility Rates Fertility Rate – Is the average number of live births each year for every woman of child bearing age (15 – 45). In Canada the fertility rate is 1.7 births per woman, while Malawi in Africa it is 7.7 (the highest in the world).

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12 Infant Mortality Rate – Is the number of infants per 1000 births who die before the age of one

13 Infant Mortality Rate Canada, 1960-1995

14 Infant Mortality Rates Provinces and Territories, Canada, 1995

15 Industrialized countries like Canada and Germany have low infant mortality rates because of advanced health care facilities and parents choosing to have small families.

16 Infant Mortality Rates Selected Countries, 1995

17 5. Growth Rate Canada’s population continues to increase its percentage growth is actually slowing down Population Pyramid – is a graph that depicts population by age group

18 Population Pyramid of the Canadian Population by Age and Sex, 1996

19 Population Pyramid of the Canadian Population by Age and Sex, 1998

20 Population Pyramid of the Canadian Population by Age and Sex, 2005

21 Dependency Load – are those people under 15 and over 65, because they are usually not active income earners. They are often supported by family members, pensions, or retirement savings. Active working age is between 15 and 65

22 6. Migration Migration – means to leave one place to settle in another Immigration – is the movement of a person into a foreign country as a permanent resident Emigration – is when people leave a country to live elsewhere

23 Net Migration – is when the total number of people immigrating to a country is compared to the total number of people emigrating from it. This figure can be a surplus, which indicates a gain in population. It can also be a deficit, which indicates a loss.

24 Trends of Net Migration in Canada, 1984 - 1994

25 7. Components of Population Growth Population growth or decline can be summarized as: Natural change + Net migration = Actual population change Current Trends: Canada will reach zero growth – that is no natural increase, in the early twenty-first century.

26 8. Population Patterns Population Density – is the number of people within a measured land area. This is calculated by dividing the number of people by the land area in which they live.

27 Population densities within Canada, 2001

28 Population Distribution – refers to the pattern of population in the area (e.g. dense, spread out, clustered, etc.)

29 Population Distribution, 1996

30 9. Factors Influencing Population Patterns Four Factors: a. Places with good soils b. Moderate climate c. Accessible water transportation d. Abundant resources

31 Industrial Inertia – is the attraction of businesses to move next to an area of existing business. Today, the area from Windsor to Quebec City, known as the Windsor-Quebec City Axis, dominates the population map of Canada.

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33 Here we find 60% of Canada’s population and almost 75% of its industry. This area is called the industrial heartland, containing six of Canada’s largest cities, including Toronto and Montreal Hinterland – is an area beyond the highly urbanized core of a region or country.

34 10. Destination of Immigrants Today, 57% of all immigrants live in the largest cities of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Toronto has the largest immigrant population – approximately 1.7 million. (40% of the city’s total population)

35 Immigration By Census Metropolitan Area, May 2000

36 3 Reasons for the trend towards urban settlement: a. More job opportunities b. Greater variety of services c. Establishes ethnic communities that help in the transition process

37 11. Interprovincial Migration The most important reason why people move from one province to another is economic. Sometimes prosperous times in another province attracts people seeking greater economic opportunities (e.g. Alberta 1976- late nineties and Ontario in 1980’s).

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