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Network Hardware and Physical Media

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Presentation on theme: "Network Hardware and Physical Media"— Presentation transcript:

1 Network Hardware and Physical Media
Network hardware includes: Computers Peripherals Interface cards and Other equipment needed to perform data processing and communications within the network

2 File servers A very fast computer with a large amount of RAM and storage space along with a fast network interface card The network operating system software resides on this computer

3 Workstations All computers connected to the file server on a network are called workstations

4 Network interface cards
The network interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation. Most NICs are internal with the card fitting into an expansion slot in the computer. Three common network interface connections are Ethernet cards, Local Talk connectors and Token Ring cards

5 Ethernet cards The most common Network Interface Cards are Ethernet cards They contain connections for either coaxial or twisted pair cables, or both Co-axial cable Twisted pair cable

6 Concentrators / Hubs A concentrator is a device that provides a central connection point for cables from workstations, servers and peripherals Hubs are multi-slot concentrators

7 Switches hubs provide an easy way to scale up and shorten the distance that the packets must travel to get from one node to another they do not break up the actual network into discrete segments. That is where switches come in.

8 Switches (continued) A vital difference between a hub and a switch is
all the nodes connected to a hub share the bandwidth among themselves. while a device connected to a switch port has the full bandwidth all to itself. Think of a switch as a ‘clever’ hub

9 Repeaters A signal loses strength as it passes along a cable, so it is often necessary to boost the signal with a device called a repeater A repeater might be a separate device, or might be part of a concentrator

10 Bridges A bridge is a device that allows you to segment a large network into two smaller, more efficient networks

11 An example of a network with a bridge
Router Hub Bridge Segment Node Hub Internet

12 Routers A router translates information from one network to another
The router directs traffic to prevent “head-on” collisions If you have a LAN that you want to connect to the Internet, you will need a router to serve as the translator between information on your LAN and the Internet

13 Routers (continued)

14 Physical Media Physical media provide the connections between network devices that make networking possible There are four main types of physical media in widespread use today: Coaxial Cable Twisted Pair Fiber Optic Cable Wireless Media

15 Ethernet Physical Media :- Maximum Segment Length LAN Technologies
10 Base Thick Co-axial Cable with Bus Topology 10 Base Thin Co-axial Cable with Bus Topology 10 BaseT UTP Cat 3/5 with Tree Topology 10 BaseFL Multimode/Singlemode Fiber with Tree Topology Maximum Segment Length 10 Base m with at most 4 repeaters (Use Bridge to extend the network) 10 Base m with at most 4 repeaters (Use Bridge to extend the network) 10 BaseT m with at most 4 hubs (Use Switch to extend the network)

16 Thick Coaxial Cable Used in the first Ethernet networks
Type RG-11 / 10Base5 Usually orange/black Thickness of a small garden hose Very expensive and heavy cable Two strands along the axis Conductor down the center Insulator surrounds conductor Shielded mesh serves as outside Thick Ethernet cable: is a specially manufactured cable to be used only in certain Ethernet environments provides many layers of shielding.

17 Thin Coaxial Cable Alternative to Thick Ethernet Cable
Type RG-58 / 10Base2 / “Cheapnet” Usually black Thickness of a pencil More flexible than thick Ethernet Reduced the cost of the cabling Flexible Thin Ethernet cable: was designed in 1984 as an alternative to thick Ethernet cable. provides a simplification of the Ethernet cabling scheme. uses a commonly manufactured cable type. reduces installation time from about 5 minutes to around 1minute. eliminated or moved certain thick coaxial components which introduced new connectors

18 Coaxial cable connectors
The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the BNC connector

19 Twisted Pair Cable Phone Systems
Twisted Pair Cable consists of two copper wires, usually twisted around each other to cancel out any noise in the circuit Two main type of Twisted Pair Cabling Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

20 Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
STP is the original media used for token ring networks STP can be used for high-speed networks, such as FDDI or ATM, where shielding is important. RJ-45

21 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
UTP has four pairs of wires inside the jacket Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs

22 UTP (Continued) Most commonly used twisted pair cable
Uses common telephone wire UTP was standardized by the IEEE committee in October of 1990 UTP for LANs is now classified as: Category 3 - used for LANs up to 10 Mbps Category 4 - used for LANs up to 16 Mbps Category 5 - used for LANs up to 100 Mbps Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable: provides an alternative, easy to use, less expensive cable type for Ethernet networks. . implements the star topology on Ethernet which allows for better network management introduced a new component called the concentrator which allows for network cabling to be collapsed into one entity.

23 Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials It transmits light rather than electronic signals It is the standard for connecting networks between buildings, due to its immunity to the effects of moisture and light

24 Fiber Optic (continued)
Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial or twisted pair It can also carry information at vastly greater speeds Fiber optic cable is more difficult to install than other cabling

25 Wireless LANS Wireless networks use high frequency radio signals to communicate between the workstations and the fileserver or hubs. Disadvantages of wireless networks are: they are expensive (relatively), provide poor security, are susceptible to interference and are slower than cabled networks

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