2 New Countries, Ancient Lands -The Indus Valley civilization was one of the world’s first civilizations arose around 2500 B.C. in what is now Pakistan.-It was a highly developed, urban civilization that lasted until 1500 B.C. when the Aryans invaded.-This region was also controlled by the Mauryan, Gupta, and Mughal empires at various times in its history.-These empires were followed by British rule in 1857.
3 New Countries, Ancient Lands -The end of British rule in 1947 brought the partition of India that separated India from the new Muslim countries of West and East Pakistan.-This was a period of violence between Muslims and Hindus where about one million people died.-West and East Pakistan shared a religious bond but ethnic differences and the 1,100-mile distance between the two halves eventually drove them apart.
4 New Countries, Ancient Lands -The people of East Pakistan began to call for their own state but the government of West Pakistan opposed such a move until a civil war broke out in 1971.-That year, with Indian aid, East Pakistan won its independence and became the country of Bangladesh.-Both Bangladesh and Pakistan have struggled to establish democracy since gaining independence.-Pakistan has fought several destructive wars with India over Kashmir, a nearby territory that borders Pakistan and India.
5 STRUGGLING ECONOMIES-Pakistan and Bangladesh have large, rapidly growing populations.-Bangladesh is the eighth most populous country in the world.-Both have economies that depend primarily on agriculture where most farmers work small plots of land and struggle to grow enough to feed their families.-The government has tried to modernize farming methods, but many farmers still follow traditional ways.
6 STRUGGLING ECONOMIES -Climate also hinders crop yields. -Large areas of Pakistan are arid and Bangladesh is affected by seasonal monsoons and cyclones.-The most productive farming areas of Pakistan are the irrigated portions of the Indus Valley where farmers grow enough cotton and rice to allow for export and produce wheat for domestic use.-The moist delta lands of Bangladesh are ideal for growing rice which is the country’s principal food crop.
7 STRUGGLING ECONOMIES-Fishing, mainly for freshwater fish, is also vital to the economy of Bangladesh.-Neither Pakistan nor Bangladesh is highly industrialized but both countries are trying to increase their industrial base.-They have growing textile industries that provide an important source of revenue and employment.-Both countries export cotton garments.
8 STRUGGLING ECONOMIES-Pakistan also exports wool carpets and leather goods.-An important economic development has been the creation of microcredit - making small loans available to poor entrepreneurs who are people who start and build businesses.-Under this program, businesses too small to get loans from banks can join forces and apply for microloans.
9 One Religion, Many Peoples -Most people in Pakistan and Bangladesh are Muslims and the faithful observe typical Muslim customs.-These include daily prayer and participation in Ramadan, a month-long period of fasting.-In general, Pakistan is stricter in imposing Islamic law on its citizens.-Many follow the custom of purdah, the seclusion of women where they are prevented from having contact with men who are not relatives and when they appear in public, they wear veils.
10 One Religion, Many Peoples -In Bangladesh, religious practices are more relaxed and purdah is less common where women do not have to wear veils.-Pakistan is ethnically diverse with five main ethnic groups—Punjabis, Sindhis, Pathans, Muhajirs, and Balochs.-Each group has its own language and regional origins within the country except the Muhajirs who migrated from India in 1947.
11 One Religion, Many Peoples -To avoid favoring one region over another, the government chose Urdu - the language of the Muhajirs - as the national language of Pakistan.-The people of Bangladesh are mainly Bengalis which is the historic region that includes Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
12 Modern Life and Culture -Life in Pakistan and Bangladesh revolves around the family.-Most people live in small villages and have simple homes made of such materials as sun baked mud, bamboo, or wood.-There are also large, crowded cities.- People in both countries enjoy sports such as soccer and cricket
13 Modern Life and Culture Poetry is a special interest in Pakistan and Bangladesh.The greatest literary figure in Bangladesh is the poet Rabindranath Tagore who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913.Music and dance are also important forms of expression and both countries share music traditions similar to those of India.