Presentation on theme: "The End of WWI & Treaty of Versailles Ypres Five battles from 1914-1918 1,700,000 soldiers on both sides were killed or wounded and an uncounted number."— Presentation transcript:
Ypres Five battles from 1914-1918 1,700,000 soldiers on both sides were killed or wounded and an uncounted number of civilians
Verdun – February, 1916 German offensive. German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties. Each side had 500,000 casualties. German offensive. German offensive. Each side had 500,000 casualties. Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
The Somme American Cemetery, France 116,516 Americans Died
Armistice – 11 th hour of 11 th day of 11 th month of 1918
Effects of War - Casualties Britain : 750,000 soldiers killed; 1,500,000 wounded France : 1,400,000 soldiers killed; 2,500,000 wounded Belgium : 50,000 soldiers killed Italy : 600,000 soldiers killed Russia : 1,700,000 soldiers killed America : 116,000 soldiers killed Germany : 2,000,000 soldiers killed Austria-Hungary : 1,200,000 soldiers killed Turkey : 325,000 soldiers killed Bulgaria : 100,000 soldiers killed The total deaths of all nations who fought in the war is thought to have been 8.5 million with 21 million being wounded.
Effects of War - Destruction War had destroyed vast areas of land in northeastern Europe –Homes of 750,000 French people were destroyed –Infrastructure (roads, buildings) damaged –Could not function normally
Treaty of Versailles Months of negotiation – signed on June 28 th, 1919 in Hall of Mirrors (in Versailles Palace)
The “Big Three” or “Big Four” Great Britain P.M. David Lloyd George United States Pres. Woodrow Wilson France Georges Clemenceau Italy Vittorio Orlando “Germany should be treated as a barrier to resist spread of communism; needs to be punished, but not so much that they would turn against Europe” “We did not have a large part in the war, but we were defeated in some battles; I was mainly on the sidelines of the treaty negotiations.” “Germany should be brought to its knees; France was destroyed and Germany should never be able to do this again.” “The U.S. has a desire for isolation and keep American input to a minimum.” “The main ideas of my Fourteen Points, or plan for Europe, are… 1)No secret treaties 2)Countries reduce weapons and armed forces 3)National self- determination 4)All countries belong to League of Nations
Terms of the Treaty - Territorial Lands Taken from Germany Alsace-Lorraine Eupen and Malmedy Northern Schleswig West Prussia Hultschin Countries that Received Lands France Belgium Denmark Czechoslovakia Poland
Terms of the Treaty - Military Germany’s army reduced to 100,000 men No tanks, air force, or submarines Only 6 naval ships Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) – area west of Rhineland –No German soldier or weapon allowed –Allied occupation
Terms of the Treaty - Financial German required to pay reparations (payments for cost of war) – about $32 billion Germany forbidden to unite w/Austria into one super-state
Terms of the Treaty – General Clauses 1)“War Guilt Clause” – Germany takes full responsibility 2)Germany had to pay reparations 3)League of Nations created to keep peace
Germany’s Reaction Germany expected to be consulted about terms, but was not Saw terms of treaty for the first time only weeks before it was signed Anger throughout Germany –Known as “Diktat” – forced on them, had no choice but to sign it
Germany’s Reaction One last act of defiance –Captured German naval force scuttled (deliberately sank itself) Germany had two choices: 1) Sign the treaty 2) Be invaded by Allies Georges Clemenceau Chose this one “It is a beautiful day.”