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The Jefferson Era Part 4 The Road to War.

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1 The Jefferson Era Part 4 The Road to War

2 War Hawks Except in New England where people wanted to resume trading with Britain, anti-British feeling was strong around the country. Congressmen and Senators from the South and the West who wanted to go to war with Britain were called WAR HAWKS.

3 War Hawks and Nationalism
War Hawks had a strong sense of NATIONALISM which is great pride and devotion to your country. War Hawks felt Britain was still treating us as a colony. Senator Henry Clay was the most outspoken War Hawk.

4 Henry Clay, a congressman from Kentucky, was the most outspoken War Hawk

5 Many War Hawks wanted war as an excuse to get revenge, and to also conquer Canada.
Some were also hoping to take over Spanish Florida, who was Britain’s ally at the time.

6 Territories desired by the War Hawks.

7 Trouble in the West War Hawks were also mad, because they thought the British were stirring up trouble with Native Americans on the frontier. As more and more settlers pushed into the western territories, tensions began to rise. Native Americans found it difficult to unite, because they themselves had many different rivalries.

8 Tecumseh and “The Prophet”
One evening, a 30 year old Shawnee Indian named Tenskwatawa was sitting before a fire. While smoking his pipe, he tipped over as if he were dead.

9 Neighbors came to see what had happened to him, and were quite surprised to see him sit up.
He claimed to have had a vision where he had visited the spirit world. He claimed he had learned the path all Indians needed to take to achieve happiness.

10 The Prophet’s Message Native Americans must give up the ways of the white man. They had become too dependent upon them and their trading goods. If Indians returned to the old ways, he believed, they would gain the power necessary to resist the settlers.

11 Tecumseh and his brother “the Prophet”

12 The Prophet built a village for his followers along Tippecanoe Creek in Indiana. Many Indians traveled to hear his message. His brother Tecumseh visited other Indian nations, and tried to unite them. The Prophet was their spiritual leader, and Tecumseh was their spokesman.

13 Tecumseh and Governor Harrison
Tecumseh and some of his warriors went to visit the governor of Indiana Territory. Instead of using chairs on the governor’s front porch, they met on the grass of the forest which was “Indian ground”. Tecumseh warned the governor that the Indians did not like having their territory taken away, and that war may occur.


15 Battle of Tippecanoe Unfortunately for them, the Indian nations east of the Mississippi were not able to unite. A year or so later, Harrison decided to take troops to Prophetstown on Tippecanoe Creek. Tecumseh was away trying to organize Indians, but his brother, the Prophet, was in charge.

16 The Prophet organized a surprise night attack on Harrison’s troops
The Prophet organized a surprise night attack on Harrison’s troops. In the battle that followed, the fighting was close, but Harrison came away with a victory at the “Battle of Tippecanoe”.


18 Other action in Tecumseh’s War in 1811.

19 Congress Declares War Many Americans firmly believed that Britain was behind the Indian troubles on the frontier. In June of 1812, President Madison finally gave in to pressure and asked Congress to declare war.

20 The House vote was 79-49 in favor of war.
The Senate vote was Most opposition to the declaration of war came from New England. Declaring war was much easier than trying to win it.

21 Mixed Reaction to the War
Many Americans were excited to hear about the declaration of war against Britain. Some called for an attack on Canada. A lot of New Englanders were disgusted by the news, and referred to the conflict as “Mr. Madison’s war”.

22 The U.S. Was Not Prepared We only had 16 ships to fight the British fleet. The army was small and ill equipped. We had to rely on volunteers.

23 They were offered 360 acres of land and $124 for their service – about a year’s pay. Lured by money and a chance to own land, many young men signed up. Unfortunately they weren’t trained well, and many deserted after only a few months. Some refused to even fight unless they were paid.

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