Money, Banking & Finance Lecture 1 The Nature of Financial Intermediation K Matthews
Aims Explain the theory and purpose of financial intermediation. Describe the structure of financial markets Show that financial intermediation is welfare superior to direct transformation of current consumption to future consumption. Describe the process of financial intermediation and the markets that enable its efficient functioning.
Financial Intermediation The mechanism whereby surplus funds from ultimate savers are matched to deficits incurred by ultimate borrowers The process by which ultimate savers are matched to ultimate borrowers. Saving = Income – Consumption Typically decisions to save are made independently of decisions to invest
Chanelling of Funds In a simple economy we have firms and households Households are the savers and firms are the investors. The mechanism by which households save is by demanding securities from firms The mechanism by which firms invest is by supplying securities to households These securities are claims to the assets of the firm
Simple model of direct finance HOUSEHOLDSFIRMS FUNDS LENT FINANCIAL CLAIMS
Direct Finance Lending and borrowing can occur as a result of direct transacting. But there are costs associated with direct finance Search costs – searching for potential transactors Verification costs – costs in evaluating investment proposals Monitoring costs – costs of monitoring the actions of borrowing Enforcement costs – costs of enforcing contracts
Efficient Direct Finance Some of these costs can be reduced through the organisation of a market. Direct financing requires the existence of an efficient securities market. However not all costs are minimised through a securities market. An additional issue is that the maturity period of finance for the firm is long term. The maturity period of the household is mostly short term. The maturity mismatch of households and firms provide the incentive for the development of intermediated finance.
Who are the savers and borrowers? Savers or lenders are households, firms, governments and foreigners Investors or borrowers are households, firms, governments and foreigners. Savers can hold corporate securities (shares), government securities (bonds), currency, bank deposits, foreign currency assets Borrowers can sell shares, sell bonds, issue currency, take bank loans, issue foreign currency liabilities
General Flow of Funds Lenders – Savers 1. Households 2. Firms 3. Government 4. Foreigners FINANCIAL MARKET Borrowers – Spenders 1. Firms 2. Government 3. Households Foreigners Financial Intermediary Indirect Finance Direct Finance
A Flow of Funds Analysis S = Saving I = private investment G = government spending T = taxes X = exports M = imports Y = C + I + G + X – M Y = C + S + T 0 = (I – S) + (G – T) + (X – M)
Financial Assets H = high powered money = Currency + bank reserves D = Stock of Bank deposits L = Stock of Bank loans Q = Stock of Private securities B = Stock of government bonds F = Stock of foreign financial assets A superscript d represents demand and a superscript s represents supply.
Stocks and Flows A stock is measured at a point in time Stock of assets, money, bonds, physical capital measured at 31 December 2007 Flows are measured over a period of time Examples of flows are GDP, Savings, Investment measured quarterly, or annually
Converting stocks into flows Let X t be the stock at a point in time t
Implications of Financial Intermediation Assumptions Two-period analysis Perfect capital market – (a) can borrow or lend at the same rate of interest, (b) perfect information, (c) costless access to capital market. Investment opportunities are infinitely divisible PIF – physical investment opportunities frontier FIL – financial investment opportunities line
Physical Investment Opportunity Frontier Period 1 Period 0 Y0Y0 C1C1 C0C0 Cost of investment Return on investment E
Financial Investment Opportunity Line 0 A B -(1+r) 0B = (1+r)0A Period 0 Period 1
Structure of Financial Markets Firm (or individual) obtains funds in the debt market or the equity market A debt instrument (bond or mortgage) pays a fixed income stream over a specified period. The maturity of the debt instrument is short term if less than a year, long term if more than 10 years and intermediate term if in between, Equities (common stock) are claims to shares in the profits and assets of a business. Equities pay periodic sums called dividends. The disadvantage of equity is that the holder is a residual claimant
Primary and Secondary Markets Primary market is the market for new issues of securities, or initial public offerings (IPOs) Secondary market is where existing securities are traded (NYSE, NASDAQ, LSE, etc) Some IPOs are well known and advertised and attract a lot of attention but many are of unknown enterprises and are underwritten by a known investment bank. Brokers are agents of investors who match buyers and sellers of securities. Dealers link buyers and sellers by buying and selling securities at stated prices. A Market Maker buys/sells at the quoted bid-ask spread with the aim of making a profit on the spread.
Money and Capital Markets Markets are sometimes distinguished on the basis of maturity of the securities traded. The Money Market is a financial market where short term debt instruments are traded (less than a year) – Commercial paper, Bills etc The Capital Market is where long term debt (longer than one year such as bonds) and equities are traded. The money market is usually more liquid and more traded and so is used by financial institutions to earn income on surplus funds.
International Financial Markets Foreign bonds are denominated in the currency of the market in which it is sold. Eurobond is bond denominated in in a currency other than the currency of the market in which it is sold. Eurocurrencies are foreign currencies deposited in banks outside the home country. Eurodollars are dollars deposited in banks outside the USA
Summary We have looked at the process and theory of financial intermediation. Efficient direct finance is conducted through the mechanism of an efficient capital market Indirect finance is through the process of a financial intermediary. Financial intermediation is welfare superior to non-market direct financing.