Masonry CONSTRUCTION IN BRICKS OR STONES MORTAR
(BONDED) MORTAR (CEMENT +WATER + AGGREGATES)
Mortar Functions Provides for full bearing Seals between masonry units
Adheres / bonds masonry units Aesthetics
OBJECTIVES Basic info about nature of masonry
Glimpse on the types of masonry Advantages and disadvantages Broader perspective of masonry
Use of masonry in various places
Foundation Walls Structural Support Walls Backup Walls for Exterior Facing Facing Materials Decorative Walls
TYPES MASONRY BRICK MASONRY STONE MASONRY
BRICK MASONRY Systematic arrangement of bricks and bonding them together with cement mortar.
Brick Masonry - Uniqueness
Fire Resistance Size Durability
JOINTS - a. head joints, b. bed joints. HEADER - A brick laid with its width parallel to the face of the wall. STRETCHER - Brick laid with its length parallel to the face of the wall. COURSE - Horizontal layer of masonry.
Brick Mortar Head Joint Bed Joint Course (layer)- horizontal layer of brick
Basic Brickwork Terminology
Header - Bonds two wythes together Wythe: vertical layer 1 unit thick Rowlock - laid on face, end visible Stretcher - long dimension horizontal & face parallel to the wall Soldier - Laid on its end, face parallel
Classifications of brick masonry
Header bond Stretcher bond English bond Flemish bond
Header bond All the courses have facing of headers.
Bricks are laid with their lengths perpendicular to the face of the wall.
Stretcher bond All the courses have facing of stretchers.
The bricks are laid with their lengths parallel to the face of the wall. This is also known as running bond
English bond It consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
Flemish bond Headers and stretchers are laid alternatively in each course. Every alternate course starts with a header at the corner. Every header is supported centrally over the stretcher below it.
Cavity (Veneer) Walls Running bond Stacked bond
Masonry Joints Size Joint Tooling Joint Profiles Weathered Concave Vee
Flush Racked Concave Struck
Extruded – Wire Cut Extruded – Smooth Wood Mold Extruded – Raked
4.CLOSER-IT IS A PIECE OF BRICKWORK USED TO CLOSE UP THE BOND AT THE END OF BRICK COURSE.
STONE MASONRY Stone masonry is the construction carried out using stones with mortar. Types of stones used in stone masonry: Dense stones (granite & quartzite). Fire-resistant stones (sandstones). Soft stones for carving (limestone, marble & slates)
Quarrying Techniques for Stone
Carnegie Mellon • Department of Architecture • Materials & Assembly
Classification of stone masonry:
1.RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY A.Un-coursed random rubble masonry B. Coursed random rubble masonry 2. SQUARE RUBBLE MASONRY A. Un-coursed square rubble masonry. B. Coursed square rubble masonry. 3.POLYGONAL RUBBLE MASONRY 4.ASHLAR MASONRY
RUBBLE MASONRY wall is made up of stones of irregular sizes and shapes. The stones from the quarry are broken into small pieces. These are directly used in construction work.
ii.SQUARE RUBBLE MASONRY
In this type the stones are roughly squared with straight edges and sides with hammer blows. types of square rubble masonry: Un-coursed square rubble masonry. Coursed square rubble masonry.
POLYGONAL RUBBLE MASONRY
In this the stones are hammer finished on the face of the wall to an irregular polygonal shape.
ASHLAR MASONRY In Ashlar masonry, no irregular stones are used. The entire construction is done using square or rectangular dressed stone blocks. The beds, sides and faces of the stones are all dressed finely with chisel.
Types of Ashlar masonry:
ASHALAR FINE MASONRY – Each stone is cut to uniform size and shape thus gives a smooth appearance. ASHLAR ROUGH TOOLED MASONRY- The stones are finely chiseled but the exposed face is dressed by rough tooling. ASHLAR QUARRY FACED MASONRY.
4. ASHLAR CHAMFERED MASONRY
5.ASHLAR FACING MASONRY. 6.ASHLAR BLOCK-IN-COURSE MASONRY. ASHLAR CHAMFERED
Composite wall masonry
Multiwythe masonry wall acting with composite action.
Composite wall masonry
Reinforced Brick Masonry
A construction system where steel reinforcement is embedded in the mortar joints of masonry or placed in holes and after filled with concrete or grout is called Reinforced masonry.
CLASSIFICATION Reinforced hollow unit masonry
Reinforced grouted cavity masonry Reinforced pocket type walls
Reinforced grouted cavity masonry
Reinforced pocket type walls
CMU Structural Walls on a Low Rise Building
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