Presentation on theme: "COMMAS Learning the 7 Rules. RULE #1 Use commas to separate items in a series. (Items in a series can be words, phrases or clauses.),,, The basketball."— Presentation transcript:
RULE #1 Use commas to separate items in a series. (Items in a series can be words, phrases or clauses.),,, The basketball coach recommended that she practice dribbling, shooting, rebounding, and passing. (words),, We can meet before English, during lunch, or after school. (phrases),, Later I have to clean my room, take my brother to the doctor, and take out the garbage. (clauses)
RULE #1 Some words, such as “bread and butter”, “law and order” and “peanut butter and jelly” are so closely related that they may be considered a single item in a series.,,, For lunch I ate soup, salad, bread and butter, and pizza.
RULE #1 Do not place a comma before or after a series.,,, Incorrect: I enjoy, hiking, biking, and eating.,, Correct: I enjoy hiking, biking, and eating.
RULE #2 Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun.,, Lucy is an smart, kind, responsible student.
RULE #2 When the last adjective before a noun is considered part of the noun, the comma before the adjective is omitted. (See “used car” in the example below.) Incorrect:,,, I found a nice, affordable, reliable, used car. Correct:,, I found a nice, affordable, reliable used car.
RULE #3 Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet when they join independent clauses. (Independent clause is a group of words that stands alone as a complete thought), Amy followed the recipe, but she still ruined dinner., Tommy drove to the movies, and Chris navigated.
RULE #3 Do not confuse a compound verb with a separate complete thought. Jill was accepted to Harvard but went to Yale instead. (No comma is necessary here because “but went to Yale instead” is not a separate complete thought. It is simply another part of the first thought’s verb.)
RULE #3, Jill was accepted at Harvard, but she decided to go to Yale instead. The comma is necessary here because “but she decided to go to Yale instead” is a separate complete thought.
RULE #4 Use commas to set off nonessential clauses and participial phrases.,, The lawnmower, which is in the shed, is broken. The lawnmower that is in the shed is broken. How is the meaning of these two sentences different based on the punctuation? (nonessential means it does not change the meaning of the sentence)
RULE #4,, Barry, tired from running all afternoon, went to bed early. Does the information inside the commas change the meaning of the sentence? If it doesn’t, then you need to put it in commas.
RULE #4 1.The juniors who made the baseball team were happy. 2.Lee who was born in Michigan ate a cupcake. 3.Willie taking a look at the weather decided to stay home. 4.The girls participating in the show need to show up by 6:00.
RULE #5 Use a comma after certain introductory elements. 1. Interjections:, Well, I guess so., Yes, I am going to finish the tofu. 2. Introductory Participial Phrases:, Looking calm, Jeff answered the question.
RULE #5 Participial Phrase: A phrase that modifies the subject of a sentence using the present or past participle of a verb. (-ing or -ed), Following directions, I did well on my road test. (“following directions” describes the subject of this sentence, “I”)
RULE #5 Be careful not to confuse the subject of the sentence with a participial phrase. Following directions can be difficult. Is a comma necessary here? (“Following directions” is not describing the subject of this sentence; it is the subject of this sentence.)
RULE #5 3. Two or More Introductory Prepositional Phrases:, In September of 2010, you started junior year.
RULE #5 Prepositional Phrase: A phrase containing a preposition and its object., At the start of the race, Lynn was favored to win. At the race Lynn was favored to win. (The comma is only necessary when there are two or more prepositional phrases.)
RULE #5 4. Introductory Dependent Clauses:, After I borrowed the Timmy’s car, I returned it.
RULE #5 Dependent Clause: A group of related words with a subject and a verb that does not stand alone as a complete sentence., After she bowled a perfect game, Mary enjoyed an ice cream cone. (“After she bowled a perfect game” does not stand alone as a complete sentence, so it needs to be followed by a comma.)
RULE #6 Use commas to set off elements that interrupt a sentence. 1. Appositives:,, Sally’s favorite book, The Scarlet Letter, is really fun to read.
RULE #6 Appositive: words that follow a noun or pronoun to identify or explain it.,, My car, the one with the dented door, is in the driveway. Sometimes an appositive is so closely associated with the word preceding it the commas is not necessary. Example: My nephew Jack is getting sleepy.
RULE #6 2. Words Used in Direct Address:, Steve, are you going to the gym later?,, Your essay, Theo, was well organized., Can you answer my question, Monica? 3. Parenthetical Expressions:, Incidentally, the dinner went fine.,, It’s too late, I believe, to do anything about it now., I think he’s at the mall now, in fact.
RULE #7 Use commas in certain conventional situations. To separate items in dates and addresses:,,, On Friday, October 23, 1992, my niece was born., Please send all materials to 92 Elm Street, Ida, OK 90210.
RULE #7 Dates and addresses—Special Rules 1.Commas do not separate month from day, house number from street name, or state abbreviation from zip code. 2.If the day is given before the month or only the month and the year are given, no comma is necessary. Examples: On 21 June 1979 the greatest even in the history of the world took place. The new building will open in August 2015.
RULE #7 3. No commas are necessary when items in an address or a date are joined by prepositions. Examples: The play is at the Melrose Theater on Broad Avenue in Midland Heights.
RULE #7 After the salutation of a friendly letter and after the closing of any letter: Dear Rosa,Sincerely yours, Grandma Lucy,Hugs and kisses,
RULE #7 Use a comma after a name followed by an abbreviation such as Jr., Sr., or M.D. and also after the abbreviation when the name and abbreviation are used together in a sentence: Examples:, Coretta Jones, M.D.,, Is Justin Smith, Jr., your cousin?
FINALLY: DO NOT USE UNNECESSARY COMMAS!, The clown getting out of the car now, is Steve’s mom., I am going to, the movies. I am going to see, Star Wars.