Presentation on theme: "Many methods are used to control pathogens."— Presentation transcript:
1 KEY CONCEPT Living in a clean environment and building immunity help keep a person healthy.
2 Many methods are used to control pathogens. Antibiotics and antiseptics cause pathogens to burst.
3 Antiseptics kill pathogens outside of the body. do not target specific pathogensexamples include vinegar and soapAntibiotics kill pathogens inside the body.target one specific bacterium or fungusnot effective against viruses
4 Antibiotic resistance can cause medicines to become ineffective. Some bacteria in a population have genes that make them immune to antibiotics.These bacteria spread the gene, making the antibiotics useless.A bacterium carries genes for antibiotic resistance on a plasmid.A copy of the plasmid is transferred through conjugation.Resistance is quickly spread through many bacteria.
5 Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity. Vaccines also control pathogens and disease.given to prevent illnesscontain the antigen of a weakened pathogen
6 9. What is a vaccine?A substance that produces active immunity.Why do vaccines do that allow the body do to gain immunity without getting sick?Produce memory cells11. Memory cells do not have to be activated- they respond right away.12.Vaccines are made of : dead, whole pathogens, weak pathogens, pieces of pathogens, bacterial toxins
7 Vaccination provides immunity. stimulates a specific immune response Antigens in a vaccine trigger an immune response, and memory B cells are made.1memory B cellscauses memory cells to be producedA memory B cell is stimulated when the real pathogen binds to it.2allows immune system to respond quickly to infectionThe B cell quickly activates and makes antibodies that fight the pathogens before you get sick.3has such a fast response, a person will not get sick
8 13. Antiseptics- destroy disease causing particles that are outside the body. 14. What is an antibiotic resistance bacteria? pathogens that survive in the presence of the antibiotic