Presentation on theme: "University of Scranton CTLE Writing Center. In-text citation is also known as parenthetical documentation. It is a way to cite external sources at."— Presentation transcript:
In-text citation is also known as parenthetical documentation. It is a way to cite external sources at the point in the document at which they are used. In-text citation is used in conjunction with and not as a replacement for the References page.
When you directly quote text from a source Writing in the APA style “could not be easier” (Beelzebub, 1886, p. 42). When you summarize the ideas of a source The APA eschews clarity in favor of a tenebrous literary style (American Psychological Association, 2001). Whenever you express ideas taken from another writer’s material
All information is enclosed within parentheses Name(s) of author(s) first A comma Year of publication A comma Page number for all quotations, summaries, and paraphrases (Faigley, 2003, p. 283). If the work does not provide page numbers, reference the work with a signal phrase. ▪ In Jim Jamusch’s 1995 film Dead Man, William Blake, played by Johnny Depp embarks on...
For electronic sources that do not give page numbers, use the abbreviation para. or the symbol ¶. (Watterson, 1998, ¶ 6) If no paragraph numbers are given, cite the heading of the source and the paragraph number counted from the heading cited, using the word “para.” (Nitsa, Conclusion, para. 8)
If a source was written by a single author: (Last Name, year, page #) If a source was written by two authors: (Last Name & Last Name, page #)
If a source was written by 3 to 5 authors: For the first time in each paragraph ▪ (Last Name, Last Name & Last Name, year, page #) For subsequent references use the first author’s last name ▪ (Last Name et al., year, page #)
If a source was written by 6 or more authors use the last name of the first author: (Last Name et al., year, page #)
For the first reference, use the full name of the organization or group (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1996, p. 28) If the name is long, abbreviate it for subsequent references (NASA, 1996, p. 28)
Use the first two or three words of the title For articles or chapters, use quotation marks ▪ (“Knitting With Safety,” 2003, p. 23) For books, brochures and reports, use italics ▪ (The Joy of, 1972, p. 345)
Use the first initial, the last name, the phrase “personal communication” and then the date of the communication: (B. Yeltsin, personal communication, Nov. 23, 2002) Note: Cite personal communications in the text only. Do not include them onyour reference page.
For one-on-one help using APA, visit The Writing Center STT 588 D (570) 941-6147 For an overview or review of the 2009 updates in APA style and format, visit Purdue University’s APA Style Workshop APA Style Workshop For information on publication information and on other instructional aids, visit the home page of the American Psychological Associationhome page