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Small Scale ecosystems

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Presentation on theme: "Small Scale ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Small Scale ecosystems

2 Scales of Ecosystems Micro habitats e.g. under leaf Habitats e.g. freshwater pond Zones e.g. layers of the rain forest Biomes e.g. Tropical rainforest

3 Ecosystem components Abiotic and Biotic elements

4 Ecosystems – Flows and Stores of Energy and Matter.

5 Trophic Levels

6 Energy loss at each Trophic level transfer

7 There is a tremendous loss of energy between one trophic level and the one above. It takes an enormous amount of vegetation to support one herbivore; and a lot of herbivores to support one predator. So big predators need vast territories. Inevitably, then, the big animals are few in number; and so they are easily driven to extinction.

8 Energy Loss: caterpillar

9 Energy Loss: e.g. Body Heat and Excretion

10 Mineral Flows : Carbon Cycle

11 Energy and Matter/Nutrients Flow through the ecosystem.

12 Food Chain

13 A Deciduous Woodland Food Web.

14 A Pond Food Web

15 The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's "address", and the niche is its "profession", biologically speaking. Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology - W B Saunders 1959 Oak trees live in oak woodlands; that's common sense. The oak woodland is the habitat. So if Odum was writing a letter to an oak tree he would address the letter to: Sir Deciduous Oak Tree, The Oak Forest, England, U.K.

16 What do oak trees do? If you can answer that question you know the oak trees "profession" or its ecological niche. Perhaps you think that oak trees just stand there looking pretty and not doing very much, but think about it. Oak trees: absorb sunlight by photosynthesis; absorb water and mineral salts from the soil; provide shelter for many animals and other plants; act as a support for creeping plants; serve as a source of food for animals; cover the ground with their dead leaves in the autumn.

17 A TASK! These organisms fit into the food web above. Moth caterpillars: Tawny owls: Squirrels: Aphids: Trees (leaves, flowers, fruits, bark): Beetles: Bank voles: Foxes: Sparrows:

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